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Geography Study Notes Biophysical Interactions Atmosphere- The blanket of air surrounding earth. Biosphere- The living part of the planet that consists of a thin layer extending from just baove the earth’s surface to just below it; combined ecosystems of the earth. Hydrosphere- The part of the earth that is composed of water, including clouds, oceans, seas, ice caps, glaciers, lakes, rivers, underground water supplies and atmospheric water vapour. Lithosphere-The upper zone of the earth’s mantle and its inorganic mixture of rocks and mineral matter (including soil) in the earth’s crust.

Population Geography The Changing Nature, Rate and Distribution of the Worlds Population Nature + Rate It took 10 000 years for the world’s population to reach 1 billion, another 100 years to double to 2 billion and less than another century to more than triple to 6. 6 billion today. The world’s population is growing at an exponential rate but this will start to slow as due to declining fertility rates. Developing countries account for 80% of the world’s population yet they account for 98% of the worlds annual population increase.

This is because children are seen as a form of income in the least developing nation states. Developed countries the rate of population has slowed or remained steady. The future even holds in some areas a declining population. This is because children are seen as expenditure in developed nation states. The reason for this rapid growth of humans is the slash of child mortality rates and the increase of life expectancy due to technological advanncements. The demographics of people have changed which means people are more likely to live and live for longer.

Distribution This refers to population density or the numbers people per unit. Population distribution and density determined by largely biophysical oppurtunities and constraints. Europe, India has large population per km2 due to migration and increased birth rates. Factors affecting fertility and mortality rates Countries of developed world Fertility rates have falling due to: The status and role of women, Attitudes to marriage and child bearing have changed alternative lifestyles (childless) and methods of birth control have improved.

Countries of developing world Factors of fertlity; Level of social and economic development, infant mortality rates, labour force (child assets), contraception and medical services. Factors affecting Mortality; Standards of living such as sanitation and the access to water. Population Movements Population is focussed on push and pull factors. Types of migration are; External; Resettlement migration (quality of life) , contract migration(guest worker), business migration(no time limit), student migration and refugee migration.

Internal; Rural-Urban Moving to city as it provides opportunity. Urbanisation= high numbers in proportion of people living in urban areas. (Movements) Urban Growth = the growth in population of urban areas. Counter urbanisation People leaving large urban areas to surbubs or small communities. This is because of quality of life and economic activity (manufacturing). Issues Arising Global inequality, water/food supply, environmental impacts and employment issues(age structures).

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