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Page i Thursday, July 3, 2003 12:49 PM CCNA Self-Study CCNA ICND Exam Certi? cation Guide Wendell Odom, CCIE No. 1624 Cisco Press Cisco Press 201 West 103rd Street Indianapolis, IN 46290 USA 083x_FMi. book Page ii Thursday, July 3, 2003 12:49 PM ii CCNA ICND Exam Certi? cation Guide Wendell Odom Copyright© 2004 Cisco Systems, Inc. Published by: Cisco Press 201 West 103rd Street Indianapolis, IN 46290 USA All rights reserved.

No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without written permission from the publisher, except for the inclusion of brief quotations in a review. Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 First Printing July 2003 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Number: 2002116060 ISBN: 1-58720-083-x Warning and Disclaimer This book is designed to provide information about selected topics for the ICND Exam for the CCNA certi? ation. Every effort has been made to make this book as complete and accurate as possible, but no warranty or ? tness is implied. The information is provided on an “as is” basis. The author, Cisco Press, and Cisco Systems, Inc. shall have neither liability nor responsibility to any person or entity with respect to any loss or damages arising from the information contained in this book or from the use of the discs or programs that may accompany it. The opinions expressed in this book belong to the author and are not necessarily those of Cisco Systems, Inc. Feedback Information

At Cisco Press, our goal is to create in-depth technical books of the highest quality and value. Each book is crafted with care and precision, undergoing rigorous development that involves the unique expertise of members of the professional technical community. Reader feedback is a natural continuation of this process. If you have any comments regarding how we could improve the quality of this book, or otherwise alter it to better suit your needs, you can contact us through e-mail at [email protected] com. Please be sure to include the book’s title and ISBN in your message. We greatly appreciate your assistance.

Trademark Acknowledgments All terms mentioned in this book that are known to be trademarks or service marks have been appropriately capitalized. Cisco Press or Cisco Systems, Inc. cannot attest to the accuracy of this information. Use of a term in this book should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark. 083x_FMi. book Page iii Thursday, July 3, 2003 12:49 PM iii Publisher: John Wait Cisco Representative: Anthony Wolfenden Editor-In-Chief: John Kane Cisco Press Program Manager: Sonia Torres Chavez Executive Editor: Brett Bartow Cisco Marketing Communications Manager: Scott Miller

Managing Editor: Patrick Kanouse Cisco Marketing Program Manager: Edie Quiroz Development Editor: Christopher Cleveland Technical Editors: Elan Beer, Lynn Maynes, Martin Walshaw Project Editor: Marc Fowler Copy Editor: Gayle Johnson Team Coordinator: Tammi Barnett Book Designer: Louisa Adair Cover Designer: Louisa Adair Compositor: Mark Shirar Indexer: Tim Wright 083x_FMi. book Page iv Thursday, July 3, 2003 12:49 PM iv About the Author Wendell Odom, CCIE No. 1624, is a senior instructor with Skyline Computer (www. skylinecomputer. com), where he teaches courses on QoS, CCNA, and CCIE lab preparation.

He has worked in the networking arena for 20 years, with jobs in pre- and postsales technical consulting, teaching, and course development. He has written portions of more than 12 courses, covering topics such as IP routing, MPLS, Cisco WAN switches, SNA protocols, and LAN troubleshooting. He is the author of three prior editions of CCNA Exam Certi? cation Guide and DQOS Exam Certi? cation Guide. About the Technical Reviewers Elan Beer, CCIE No. 1837, CCSI No. 94008, is a senior consultant and Certi? ed Cisco Instructor. His internetworking expertise is recognized internationally through his global consulting and training engagements.

As one of the industry’s top internetworking consultants and Cisco instructors, Beer has used his expertise to design, implement, and deploy multi-protocol networks for a wide international clientele. As a senior instructor and course developer, Beer has designed and presented public and implementation-speci? c technical courses spanning many of today’s top technologies. He can be reached at [email protected] com. Lynn Maynes, CCIE No. 6569, is a senior network engineer with Sprint Managed Network Services specializing in network design, architecture, and security for large-scale networks worldwide.

He has more than 9 years of experience in computer networking and is a coauthor of the Cisco Press book, CCNA Practical Studies. He holds a bachelor’s degree in international business from Westminster College. Martin Walshaw, CCIE No. 5629, CISSP, CCNP, CCDP, is a systems engineer working for Cisco Systems in the Enterprise line of business in South Africa. His areas of specialty include convergence, security, and content delivery networking. Over the last 15 years, Walshaw has dabbled in many aspects of the IT industry, ranging from programming in RPG III and COBOL to PC sales.

When Walshaw isn’t working, he likes to spend all his available time with his patient wife, Val, and his sons, Joshua and Callum. Without their patience, understanding, and support, projects such as this would not be possible. Dedication The nature of the book-writing process requires some long and odd work hours. My darling wife, Kris, never complains about it, picks up my slack, and makes our lives run smoothly— all so I can write. Kris, the ? rst time you read this dedication, you’re entitled to a whole week of “Honey do” tasks from me at home. Thanks for making it all possible! 083x_FMi. book Page v Thursday, July 3, 2003 12:49 PM Acknowledgments The technical editing team for this book and its companion volume were fantastic. Not only did they ? nd where I had written wrong technical facts, they also helped me ? nd new, more interesting, and clearer ways to convey certain facts about networking. Lynn was particularly helpful with comments that helped keep small sections in line with the overall theme of the chapter—a skill I’m sure he developed as a result of having written books himself. Martin helped a lot with technical details and perspectives from what customers see every day. And Elan excelled at noticing both small, nitpicky errors and signi? ant technical problems. (And that’s not an insult—every technical author loves help in ? nding the small problems! ) Together, these three gentlemen formed a great team with complementary skills. Thanks so much, guys! The production team, headed by Patrick Kanouse, did their usual excellent job. Like the “behind-the-scenes” people in many businesses, their speci? c efforts might not be obvious to the public, but they are no less appreciated by me. In particular, Marc Fowler, the project editor, did an incredible job working through these two books on a very tight schedule, with his usual excellent work.

You folks make me look good on paper. If only you could be in charge of my wardrobe too, I’d look good all the time! Brett Bartow, Executive Editor, did his usual New-York-Yankees-like job of helping steer these two projects toward completion. In between talking about sports, Brett worked through the many changes in direction with this book and helped guide us to the right product. And yes, so the whole world knows, he did pick an Atlanta Braves player, John Smoltz, for his fantasy league baseball team—again proving he’s a really smart guy. Chris Cleveland developed this book and the CCNA INTRO Exam Certi? ation Guide. He’s simply the best. He also works way harder than I do to get these books to market. You da man, Chris C! 083x_FMi. book Page vi Thursday, July 3, 2003 12:49 PM vi Contents at a Glance Introduction xvi Part I LAN Switching 3 Chapter 1 LAN Switching Review and Con? guring Cisco 2950 LAN Switches Chapter 2 Spanning Tree Protocol Chapter 3 Virtual LANs and Trunking Part II TCP/IP 95 Chapter 4 IP Addressing and Subnetting Chapter 5 RIP, IGRP, and Static Route Concepts and Con? guration Chapter 6 OSPF and EIGRP Concepts and Con? guration Chapter 7 Advanced Routing Protocol Topics Chapter 8

Advanced TCP/IP Topics Part III Wide-Area Networks 299 Chapter 9 Point-to-Point Leased Line Implementation Chapter 10 ISDN and Dial-on-Demand Routing Chapter 11 Frame Relay Part IV Network Security 421 Chapter 12 IP Access Control List Security Part V Final Preparation 457 Chapter 13 Final Preparation Part VI Appendixes 493 5 31 67 97 141 185 219 251 301 321 371 423 459 Appendix A Answers to the “Do I Know This Already? ” Quizzes and Q&A Questions Appendix B Decimal to Binary Conversion Chart 555 Appendix C Using the Simulation Software for Hands-on Exercises Appendix D Comparisons of Dynamic Routing Protocols

Appendix E Glossary Index Configuring Cisco 1900 Switches 599 610 577 567 561 495 083x_FMi. book Page vii Thursday, July 3, 2003 12:49 PM vii Contents Introduction xvi Part I LAN Switching 3 Chapter 1 LAN Switching Review and Configuring Cisco 2950 LAN Switches 5 “Do I Know This Already? ” Quiz 5 Foundation Topics 10 Brief Review of LAN Switching 10 The Forward-Versus-Filter Decision 11 How Switches Learn MAC Addresses 12 Forwarding Unknown Unicasts and Broadcasts 13 LAN Switch Logic Summary 14 Basic Configuration and Operation Commands for the Cisco 2950 Switch Basic Switch Operation 16

Typical Basic Administrative Configuration 20 Port Security Configuration 25 Foundation Summary 28 Q&A 29 Chapter 2 14 Spanning Tree Protocol 31 “Do I Know This Already? ” Quiz 31 Foundation Topics 36 Spanning Tree Protocol 36 What IEEE 802. 1d Spanning Tree Does 36 How Spanning Tree Works 38 Electing the Root and Discovering Root Ports and Designated Ports Reacting to Changes in the Network 42 Spanning Tree Protocol Summary 45 Optional STP Features 46 EtherChannel 47 PortFast 48 Rapid Spanning Tree (IEEE 802. 1w) 48 RSTP Link and Edge Types 49 RSTP Port States 50 RSTP Port Roles 50 RSTP Convergence 52

Edge-Type Behavior and PortFast 52 Link-Type Shared 52 Link-Type Point-to-Point 52 An Example of Speedy RSTP Convergence 53 Spanning Tree Protocol Configuration 56 Basic STP show Commands 57 Changing STP Port Costs and Bridge Priority 58 EtherChannel Configuration 60 39 083x_FMi. book Page viii Thursday, July 3, 2003 12:49 PM viii Foundation Summary Foundation Summary Q&A 65 Chapter 3 62 64 Virtual LANs and Trunking 67 “Do I Know This Already? ” Quiz 67 Foundation Topics 71 Review of Virtual LAN Concepts 71 Trunking with ISL and 802. 1Q 72 ISL 73 802. 1Q 73 ISL and 802. 1Q Compared 74 VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) 76

How VTP Works 76 VTP Pruning 78 VLAN and Trunking Configuration 79 VLAN Configuration for a Single Switch VLAN Trunking Configuration 84 Foundation Summary 89 Q&A 91 Part II TCP/IP 95 Chapter 4 80 IP Addressing and Subnetting 97 “Do I Know This Already? ” Quiz 97 Foundation Topics 102 IP Addressing Review 102 IP Subnetting 104 Analyzing and Interpreting IP Addresses and Subnets 106 Math Operations Used to Answer Subnetting Questions 107 Converting IP Addresses from Decimal to Binary and Back Again 107 The Boolean AND Operation 109 Prefix Notation 111 How Many Hosts and How Many Subnets? 111

What Is the Subnet Number, and What Are the IP Addresses in the Subnet? Finding the Subnet Number 116 Finding the Subnet Broadcast Address 118 Finding the Range of Valid IP Addresses in a Subnet 119 Finding the Answers Without Using Binary 121 Which Subnet Masks Meet the Stated Design Requirements? 127 What Are the Other Subnet Numbers? 130 Foundation Summary 135 Q&A 137 116 083x_FMi. book Page ix Thursday, July 3, 2003 12:49 PM ix Chapter 5 RIP, IGRP, and Static Route Concepts and Configuration 141 “Do I Know This Already? ” Quiz 142 Foundation Topics 145 Configuring and Testing Static Routes 145

Configuring Static Routes 147 Extended ping Command 147 Distance Vector Concepts 150 Distance Vector Loop-Avoidance Features 153 Route Poisoning 154 Split Horizon 155 Split Horizon with Poison Reverse 157 Hold-Down Timer 158 Triggered (Flash) Updates 160 RIP and IGRP 160 Configuring RIP and IGRP 161 Basic RIP and IGRP Configuration 162 IGRP Configuration 164 IGRP Metrics 166 Examination of RIP and IGRP debug and show Commands 167 Issues When Multiple Routes to the Same Subnet Exist 173 Administrative Distance 176 Foundation Summary 178 Q&A 181 Chapter 6 OSPF and EIGRP Concepts and Configuration 185 Do I Know This Already? ” Quiz 185 Foundation Topics 190 Link-State Routing Protocol and OSPF Concepts 190 Steady-State Operation 193 Loop Avoidance 194 Scaling OSPF Through Hierarchical Design 194 OSPF Areas 195 Stub Areas 197 Summary: Comparing Link-State and OSPF to Distance Vector Protocols Balanced Hybrid Routing Protocol and EIGRP Concepts 198 EIGRP Loop Avoidance 199 EIGRP Summary 201 OSPF Configuration 201 OSPF Single-Area Configuration 202 OSPF Configuration with Multiple Areas 204 EIGRP Configuration 209 Foundation Summary 212 Q&A 216 197 083x_FMi. book Page x Thursday, July 3, 2003 12:49 PM Chapter 7 Advanced Routing Protocol Topics 219 “Do I Know This Already? ” Quiz 219 Foundation Topics 223 Route Summarization and Variable-Length Subnet Masks Route Summarization Concepts 224 VLSM 228 Route Summarization Strategies 230 Sample “Best” Summary on Seville 231 Sample “Best” Summary on Yosemite 232 Classless Routing Protocols and Classless Routing 232 Classless and Classful Routing Protocols 233 Autosummarization 233 Classful and Classless Routing 238 Default Routes 238 Classless Routing 242 Foundation Summary 245 Q&A 247 Chapter 8 223 Advanced TCP/IP Topics 251 “Do I Know This Already? Quiz 251 Foundation Topics 257 Scaling the IP Address Space for the Internet 257 CIDR 258 Private Addressing 259 Network Address Translation 260 Static NAT 261 Dynamic NAT 264 Overloading NAT with Port Address Translation (PAT) 265 Translating Overlapping Addresses 267 NAT Configuration 269 Static NAT Configuration 270 Dynamic NAT Configuration 272 NAT Overload Configuration (PAT Configuration) 275 Miscellaneous TCP/IP Topics 277 Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) 277 ICMP Echo Request and Echo Reply 278 Destination Unreachable ICMP Message 278 Time Exceeded ICMP Message 280 Redirect ICMP Message 283

Secondary IP Addressing 283 FTP and TFTP 285 FTP 286 TFTP 287 MTU and Fragmentation 288 ISL and 802. 1Q Configuration on Routers 289 Foundation Summary 292 Q&A 296 083x_FMi. book Page xi Thursday, July 3, 2003 12:49 PM xi Part III Wide-Area Networks 299 Chapter 9 Point-to-Point Leased Line Implementation 301 “Do I Know This Already? ” Quiz 301 Foundation Topics 305 Review of WAN Basics 305 Physical Components of Point-to-Point Leased Lines 306 Data-Link Protocols for Point-to-Point Leased Lines 307 HDLC and PPP Compared 308 HDLC and PPP Configuration 310 PPP-Specific Features 311 Looped Link Detection 312

Enhanced Error Detection 313 Authentication Over WAN Links 313 PAP and CHAP Authentication 314 Foundation Summary 316 Q&A 318 Chapter 10 ISDN and Dial-on-Demand Routing 321 “Do I Know This Already? ” Quiz 321 Foundation Topics 326 ISDN Protocols and Design 326 Typical Uses of ISDN 326 ISDN Channels 327 ISDN Protocols 328 ISDN BRI Function Groups and Reference Points 330 ISDN PRI Function Groups and Reference Points 334 BRI and PRI Encoding and Framing 335 PRI Encoding 335 PRI Framing 335 BRI Framing and Encoding 336 ISDN Configuration and Dial-on-Demand Routing 336 DDR Legacy Concepts and Configuration 338

DDR Step 1: Routing Packets Out the Interface to Be Dialed 339 DDR Step 2: Determining the Subset of the Packets That Trigger the Dialing Process 340 DDR Step 3: Dialing (Signaling) 342 DDR Step 4: Determining When the Connection Is Terminated 345 ISDN BRI Configuration 345 Summary of Legacy DDR Configuration 347 ISDN and DDR show and debug Commands 348 ISDN PRI Configuration 351 Configuring a T1 or E1 Controller 352 Full PRI Configuration 353 DDR Configuration with Dialer Profiles 354 Multilink PPP 359 ISDN and DDR Configuration Summary 361 083x_FMi. book Page xii Thursday, July 3, 2003 12:49 PM xii

Foundation Summary Q&A 367 Chapter 11 363 Frame Relay 371 “Do I Know This Already? ” Quiz 371 Foundation Topics 376 Frame Relay Protocols 376 Frame Relay Standards 378 Virtual Circuits 379 LMI and Encapsulation Types 381 DLCI Addressing Details 383 Network Layer Concerns with Frame Relay 388 Layer 3 Addressing with Frame Relay 388 Frame Relay Layer 3 Addressing: One Subnet Containing All Frame Relay DTEs Frame Relay Layer 3 Addressing: One Subnet Per VC 389 Frame Relay Layer 3 Addressing: Hybrid Approach 391 Broadcast Handling 392 Frame Relay Service Interworking 393 Frame Relay Configuration 395

A Fully-Meshed Network with One IP Subnet 397 Frame Relay Address Mapping 399 A Partially-Meshed Network with One IP Subnet Per VC 404 A Partially-Meshed Network with Some Fully-Meshed Parts 409 Foundation Summary 414 Q&A 417 Part IV Network Security 421 Chapter 12 IP Access Control List Security 423 “Do I Know This Already? ” Quiz 423 Foundation Topics 427 Standard IP Access Control Lists 427 IP Standard ACL Concepts 427 Wildcard Masks 430 Standard IP Access List Configuration 432 Standard IP ACL: Example 2 434 Extended IP Access Control Lists 437 Extended IP ACL Concepts 437 Extended IP ACL Configuration 439

Extended IP Access Lists: Example 1 440 Extended IP Access Lists: Example 2 442 388 083x_FMi. book Page xiii Thursday, July 3, 2003 12:49 PM xiii Miscellaneous ACL Topics 443 Named IP Access Lists 443 Controlling Telnet Access with ACLs 446 ACL Implementation Considerations 446 Foundation Summary 449 Q&A 453 Part V Final Preparation 457 Chapter 13 Final Preparation 459 Suggestions for Final Preparation 459 Preparing for the Exam Experience 460 Final Lab Scenarios 462 Scenario 1 462 Scenario 1, Part A: Planning 462 Solutions to Scenario 1, Part A: Planning 463 Scenario 1, Part B: Configuration 464

Solutions to Scenario 1, Part B: Configuration 464 Scenario 1, Part C: Verification and Questions 466 Solutions to Scenario 1, Part C: Verification and Questions Scenario 2 474 Scenario 2, Part A: Planning 474 Solutions to Scenario 2, Part A: Planning 477 Scenario 2, Part B: Configuration 479 Solutions to Scenario 2, Part B: Configuration 479 Scenario 2, Part C: Verification and Questions 481 Solutions to Scenario 2, Part C: Verification and Questions Part VI 473 489 Appendixes 493 Appendix A Answers to the “Do I Know This Already? ” Quizzes and Q&A Questions 495 Appendix B Decimal to Binary Conversion Table 555

Appendix C Using the Simulation Software for the Hands-on Exercises 561 Appendix D Comparisons of Dynamic Routing Protocols 567 Appendix E Configuring Cisco 1900 Switches 577 Glossary 599 Index 610 083x_FMi. book Page xiv Thursday, July 3, 2003 12:49 PM xiv Icons Used in This Book Router Bridge Multilayer Switch Catalyst Switch ATM Switch Communication Server PC Terminal Printer File Server ISDN/Frame Relay Switch Access Server Gateway PC with Software Laptop DSU/CSU DSU/CSU Hub Sun Workstation Macintosh Web Server Cisco Works Workstation Modem IBM Mainframe Front End Processor Cluster Controller 083x_FMi. ook Page xv Thursday, July 3, 2003 12:49 PM xv Line: Ethernet Token Ring Token Ring FDDI Line: Serial FDDI Line: Switched Serial Network Cloud Command Syntax Conventions The conventions used to present command syntax in this book are the same conventions used in the IOS Command Reference. The Command Reference describes these conventions as follows: I Vertical bars ( | ) separate alternative, mutually exclusive elements. I Square brackets ([ ]) indicate an optional element. I Braces ({ }) indicate a required choice. I Braces within brackets ([{ }]) indicate a required choice within an optional element.

I Bold indicates commands and keywords that are entered literally as shown. In actual con? guration examples and output (not general command syntax), bold indicates commands that are manually input by the user (such as a show command). I Italic indicates arguments for which you supply actual values. 083x_FMi. book Page xvi Thursday, July 3, 2003 12:49 PM xvi Introduction: Overview of Certi? cation and How to Succeed Congratulations! If you’re reading this Introduction, you’ve probably decided to go for your Cisco Certi? ed Network Associate (CCNA) certi? cation. Cisco Systems’ entry-level certi? ation, CCNA, has a reputation as one of the most valuable entry-level certi? cations in the computing industry. Although getting your CCNA does not guarantee you your ? rst networking job, or a new job, it will certainly help convince others that you know what you’re talking about! Cisco’s CCNA certi? cation proves that you have a ? rm foundation in the most important components of the Cisco product line—routers and switches. It also proves that you have broad knowledge of protocols and networking technologies. CCNA is not an easy certi? cation to get, but it is well worth the effort.

In a booming economy, CCNA is the ? rst step toward getting a higher salary than your noncerti? ed peers. In a dif? cult economy, it could determine whether a prospective employer even looks at your resume. Regardless of your local economy, CCNA improves how people in the marketplace view your skill level! People occasionally ask me for career advice, and my answer is typically the same: If you want to be in the networking industry, you need to know Cisco. Cisco has some amazing market shares in the router and switch industry, with more than 80% market share in some markets.

In many markets, networking equals Cisco. If you want to be taken seriously as a network engineer, you need a CCNA certi? cation. Frankly, you probably also need to work toward a more advanced Cisco certi? cation—but ? rst things ? rst! CCNA requires some time and effort. Cisco’s Motivation: Certifying Partners Cisco’s primary motivation for creating CCNA and most of the other Cisco certi? cations is to help determine the skill levels of their partners. Cisco ful? lls only a small portion of its orders through direct sales; most often, a Cisco reseller is involved. (Cisco calls resellers channel partners. Also, Cisco encourages partners to perform most consulting and implementation services relating to Cisco products. While working heavily with partners, Cisco needed to know which partners truly had the right skills. So it created many certi? cations, including CCNA. Cisco measures the technical readiness of channel partners (resellers) and professional services partners in part by requiring speci? c numbers of Cisco certi? ed employees. For instance, Premier, Silver, and Gold Channel Partners are required to have either two or four CCNAs on staff, along with Cisco professional and expert-level certi? d individuals. So what does this mean to you? Well, if you already have some Cisco certi? cations on your resume, you are more valuable to Cisco partners. In today’s competitive environment, every 083x_FMi. book Page xvii Thursday, July 3, 2003 12:49 PM xvii edge counts, so having the right Cisco certi? cations can help you get that next job! In particular, the CCNA certi? cation is a prerequisite for almost every Cisco certi? cation, so this is the right place to start! The CCNA Certi? cation Exams (What? There’s More Than One Exam? ) For the ? rst time since Cisco announced CCNA in 1998, the CCNA certi? ation has an option for multiple exams. Before Cisco announced these latest changes in 2003, to get your CCNA certi? cation, you passed a single “CCNA exam. ” With this latest generation of the CCNA, you can take a single exam to get your CCNA, or you can take two exams—with each of these exams covering a subset of the CCNA exam topics. Table I-1 lists the exams. Table I-1 CCNA Exam Names and Numbers Exam Name Exam Number Description INTRO exam 640-821 A subset of the CCNA topics. It should be taken before the ICND exam. ICND exam 640-811 A subset of the CCNA topics. It should be taken after the INTRO exam.

CCNA exam 640-801 Can be taken instead of the INTRO and ICND exams. It covers the same content as the other two exams combined. So you either take the CCNA exam, or you take both the INTRO and the ICND exams, to pass CCNA. Like most Cisco certi? cation exams, the names of the INTRO and ICND exams come from two Cisco Authorized courses. Cisco’s INTRO course covers a broad range of topics, from Ethernet cabling to virtual private networks (VPNs). The Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) course delves more deeply into core Cisco technology and protocols—in particular, switching and routing.

The INTRO course covers a broader range of topics in less depth, and the ICND course covers fewer topics in more depth. Like their namesakes, the INTRO and ICND exams cover similar depth and breadth. The CCNA exam covers everything on both the INTRO and ICND exams. So if you want to save some cash, and you are con? dent that you are ready to answer questions across the whole range of topics for CCNA, you can take just the CCNA exam. Alternatively, you can focus on the INTRO exam ? rst, master those topics, pass the exam, and then move on to the ICND exam. 083x_FMi. book Page xviii Thursday, July 3, 2003 12:49 PM viii Format of the CCNA Exams The INTRO, ICND, and CCNA exams all follow the same general format. As soon as you get to the testing center and check in, the proctor will give you some general instructions and then take you to a quiet room with a PC. After you sit down at the PC, you have a few things to do before the timer starts on your exam. For instance, you can take a sample quiz to get accustomed to the PC and the testing engine. Anyone who has user-level skills in getting around a PC will have no problems with the testing environment. As soon as you start the exam, you will be asked a series of questions.

You answer the question and then move on to the next one. The exam engine does not let you go back and change your answer. As soon as you move on to the next question, that’s it for the preceding question. The exam questions can be in the following format: I Multiple choice I Fill-in-the-blank I Drag and drop I Simulated lab The multiple-choice format requires that you click a circle beside the correct answer(s). If more than one answer is required, the question probably will tell you how many answers to choose. Fill-in-the-blank questions require that you enter the answer, so you must get the answer exactly right.

Drag-and-drop questions require you to click and drag a button or icon to another area and then release the mouse button to place the object—typically in a list. For some questions, you might need to put a list of ? ve things in the proper order. The type of question that gives most people a scare before the exam is the simulated lab question. The exam engine gives you an interface into a network with several routers, and you must log in and troubleshoot a scenario. To solve the problem, you need to be able to navigate through the user interface, know several commands, and possibly con? gure something that has been miscon? ured. You should also save your con? gurations, unless the question tells you not to, just in case. The best way to prepare for simulated lab questions is to practice with real gear. You can use the Internet to ? nd sites that offer free CCNA lab access. I searched for “free CCNA labs,” and the ? rst three hits were (seemingly) legitimate offers for free lab access for CCNA study. You can also use a simulator product, such as Cisco Press’s CCNA Router and Switch eSIM. A special version of Boson’s Netsim product, compiled speci? cally for this book, is also included on the CD that comes with this book. 83x_FMi. book Page xix Thursday, July 3, 2003 12:49 PM xix What’s on the CCNA Exams Ever since I was in grade school, whenever the teacher announced that we were having a test soon, someone would always ask, “What’s on the test? ”. Even in college, people would try to get more information about what would be on the exams. The goal is to know what to study a lot, what to study a little, and what to not study at all. Cisco wants you to know what topics to study, and it wants you to be well-prepared for your exams. However, Cisco does not want to be so speci? c that you can just memorize a very speci? set of facts and pass the exams. In short, Cisco wants you to pass the exams because you know your stuff, not because you memorized a set of questions that someone (possibly illegally) posted on an Internet site. What can be said about the content of the exams? First, Cisco posts exam topics for each exam. This of? cial posting is the basis of what Cisco intends to put on the exams, so you should pay close attention to this list. Also, the breadth and depth of topics on the exams tend to match the Cisco Authorized courses with which they are associated, so it is useful to know the outlines for those courses.

Finally, Cisco designs the Cisco Networking Academy Program (CNAP) course materials with CCNA in mind. Looking at all these sources can give you insight into CCNA. ICND Exam Topics Carefully consider the exam topics Cisco posts on its website as you study, particularly for clues as to how thoroughly you should know each topic. The exam topics use action words that follow a quasi-standard called “Bloom’s Taxonomy of the Cognitive Domain. ” Bloom’s Taxonomy de? nes a standard for word usage for when educators create objectives for courses. Objectives written according to Bloom’s Taxonomy de? e what the student should be able to accomplish after taking the class. So, when you look at an exam topic, look for the action word. It gives you a good hint about the level of knowledge and skill you will need before taking the exam. (If you want to see a description of Bloom’s Taxonomy, search the Internet. My favorite quick list of terms is at http://chiron. valdosta. edu/whuitt/col/cogsys/ bloom. html. ) The action word in the exam topic gives you a good hint about the level of knowledge and skill you will need to have before taking the exam.

For instance, a course objective that uses the word list as the action word means that you should be able to list the features. An action word such as con? gure means that you should know all the related con? guration commands and how to use them. Troubleshoot might mean that you need to know what all the show and debug commands do for a particular topic. 083x_FMi. book Page xx Thursday, July 3, 2003 12:49 PM xx What does Bloom’s Taxonomy mean in terms of how you study for the exam? It means that you should focus on the action words in the exam topics and make sure you can do those things for the stated topics.

For instance, if an exam topic says something like “Con? gure RIP… ,” don’t just study RIP concepts. Also study the con? guration details, because the exam topic speci? cally tells you that you need to know how to perform con? guration. Cisco adds a disclaimer that the posted exam topics for all its certi? cation exams are guidelines. Cisco tries to keep the exam questions within the con? nes of the stated exam objectives, but doing this for every question and every exam is dif? cult. Thus, you could see questions that fall outside both the scope and depth implied by the exam topics.

However, if you follow the Cisco exam topic guidelines, you should have a good understanding of the breadth and depth of topics on the exam. Table I-2 lists the exam topics for the ICND exam. You can ? nd these topics in the Introduction to the CCNA ICND Exam Certi? cation Guide and on www. cisco. com. Note that although Cisco’s posted exam topics are not numbered, they are numbered in the Exam Certi? cation Guide series for easier reference. Also note that Cisco has historically changed exam topics without changing the exam number, so do not be alarmed if small changes in the exam topics occur over time.

When in doubt, go to www. cisco. com, click Learning & Events, and select Career Certi? cations and Paths. Table I-2 ICND Exam Topics Exam Topic Reference Number Exam Topics Planning and Design 1 Design or modify a simple LAN using Cisco products 2 Design an IP addressing scheme to support classful, classless, and private addressing to meet design requirements 3 Select an appropriate routing protocol based on user requirements 4 Design a simple internetwork using Cisco products 5 Develop an access list to meet user speci? cations 6 Choose WAN protocols to meet design requirements Implementation and Operation 7 Con? ure routing protocols given user requirements 8 Con? gure IP addresses, subnet masks, and gateway addresses on routers and hosts 9 Con? gure a router for additional administrative functionality 083x_FMi. book Page xxi Thursday, July 3, 2003 12:49 PM xxi Table I-2 ICND Exam Topics (Continued) Exam Topic Reference Number Exam Topics 10 Con? gure a switch with VLANS and inter-switch communication 11 Implement a LAN 12 Customize a switch con? guration to meet speci? ed network requirements 13 Implement access lists 14 Implement simple WAN protocols Troubleshooting 15 Utilize the OSI model as a guide for systematic network troubleshooting 6 Perform LAN and VLAN troubleshooting 17 Troubleshoot routing protocols 18 Troubleshoot IP addressing and host con? guration 19 Troubleshoot a device as part of a working network 20 Troubleshoot an access list 21 Perform simple WAN troubleshooting Technology 22 Describe the Spanning Tree process 23 Evaluate the characteristics of LAN environments 24 Evaluate the characteristics of routing protocols 25 Evaluate rules for packet control 26 Evaluate key characteristics of HDLC, PPP, Frame Relay, DDR, and ISDN technologies 083x_FMi. book Page xxii Thursday, July 3, 2003 12:49 PM xxii Cross-Reference Between Exam Topics and Book Parts

Table I-3 provides a cross-reference between the exam topics and the book parts in which they are covered. Table I-3 ICND Exam Topics Cross-Reference to Parts in the CCNA ICND Exam Certi? cation Guide Exam Topic Part Exam Topic Part 1 1 14 3 2 2 15 1-4 3 2 16 1 4 1-3 17 2 5 4 18 2 6 3 19 1-4 7 2 20 4 8 2 21 3 9 2 22 1 10 1 23 1 11 1 24 2 12 1 25 4 13 4 26 3 CCNA Exam Topics Interestingly, the CCNA (640-801) exam topics posted by Cisco are not simply the combination of the INTRO exam topics and the ICND exam topics. If you look closely, the CCNA exam topics match more closely to the ICND exam topics than they do to the INTRO exam topics.

So, for those of you planning to take the single CCNA exam, what does that mean? Well, for practical purposes, the CCNA exam covers all the topics covered on both the INTRO and ICND exams. However, the length of the CCNA exam does not allow Cisco to ask you about every possible fact. So, you should expect the CCNA exam to include questions that cover more advanced topics, many of which require that you know the more basic facts. For instance, rather than ask a question about how to do binary math, which is speci? cally mentioned for the INTRO exam topics, you might have to derive subnet numbers – which requires you to use binary math.

Another example: instead of describing LAN cabling, you might have a question about troubleshooting a LAN topology, and need to decide if an incorrect type of cable was used. So, while the exam topics do not exactly match up, but you 083x_FMi. book Page xxiii Thursday, July 3, 2003 12:49 PM xxiii essentially need to know all the same concepts on both the INTRO and ICND exams in order to succeed on the CCNA exam. Table I-4 lists the CCNA exam topics at time of publication. As always, look to www. cisco. com for the latest posted information about the CCNA, INTRO, and ICND exams! Table I-4 CCNA Exam Topics Exam Topic

Reference Number Exam Topic Planning and Design 1 Design a simple LAN using Cisco Technology 2 Design an IP addressing scheme to meet design requirements 3 Select an appropriate routing protocol based on user requirements 4 Design a simple internetwork using Cisco technology 5 Develop an access list to meet user speci? cations 6 Choose WAN services to meet customer requirements Implementation and Operation 7 Con? gure routing protocols given user requirements 8 Con? gure IP addresses, subnet masks, and gateway addresses on routers and hosts 9 Con? gure a router for additional administrative functionality 0 Con? gure a switch with VLANS and inter-switch communication 11 Implement a LAN 12 Customize a switch con? guration to meet speci? ed network requirements 13 Manage system image and device con? guration ? les 14 Perform an initial con? guration on a router 15 Perform an initial con? guration on a switch 16 Implement access lists 17 Implement simple WAN protocols Troubleshooting 18 Utilize the OSI model as a guide for systematic network troubleshooting 19 Perform LAN and VLAN troubleshooting 20 Troubleshoot routing protocols 21 Troubleshoot IP addressing and host con? guration 22

Troubleshoot a device as part of a working network continues 083x_FMi. book Page xxiv Thursday, July 3, 2003 12:49 PM xxiv Table I-4 CCNA Exam Topics (Continued) Exam Topic Reference Number Exam Topic 23 Troubleshoot an access list 24 Perform simple WAN troubleshooting Technology 25 Describe network communications using layered models 26 Describe the Spanning Tree process 27 Compare and contrast key characteristics of LAN environments 28 Evaluate the characteristics of routing protocols 29 Evaluate TCP/IP communication process and its associated protocols 30 Describe the components of network devices 1 Evaluate rules for packet control 32 Evaluate key characteristics of WANs INTRO and ICND Course Outlines Another way to get some direction for the topics on the exams is to look at the course outlines for the related courses. Cisco offers the Introduction to Cisco Networking (INTRO) and Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices (ICND) courses through its Certi? ed Learning Solutions Providers (CLSPs). CLSPs in turn work with other learning partners as well. The INTRO course covers a much broader set of topics than ICND, but for the topics it covers, ICND covers the topics in much greater detail.

In particular, ICND includes a lot more information about commands used on routers and switches to con? gure and troubleshoot the various features. These outlines can be found at www. cisco. com. About the CCNA INTRO Exam Certi? cation Guide and CCNA ICND Exam Certi? cation Guide As mentioned earlier in this Introduction, you can take both the INTRO and ICND exams to pass CCNA, or you can take a single CCNA exam. Because of the signi? cantly expanded topics as compared with the previous CCNA exam, there was simply too much material for a single book.

So we created two books—one for the INTRO exam and one for the ICND exam. 083x_FMi. book Page xxv Thursday, July 3, 2003 12:49 PM xxv The contents of the two books were designed for both the single-exam and dual-exam audience. If you’re preparing for just the ICND exam, you can read just this book. Because the ICND exam covers topics more deeply than the INTRO exam, you should probably pass the INTRO exam ? rst. Use the CCNA INTRO Exam Certi? cation Guide to help with that task. If you are studying for the CCNA exam, you can use both books and alternate reading each book to optimize your efforts in preparing for the exam.

This Introduction includes a reading plan for anyone taking the CCNA exam, telling you in what order to read the chapters in the two books. Essentially, you read the ? rst three parts of this book and then read part of the other book, come back here for a part, go back to the other book, and so on, for most of the parts of both books. The parts are named so that it is obvious which sections to read as you move between the books. By doing so, you complete all the coverage in a particular technical area before moving on to another. Objectives and Methods

The most important and somewhat obvious objective of this book is to help you pass the ICND exam or the CCNA exam. In fact, if the primary objective of this book were different, the book’s title would be misleading! However, the methods used in this book to help you pass the exams are also designed to make you much more knowledgeable about how to do your job. This book uses several key methodologies to help you discover the exam topics on which you need more review, to help you fully understand and remember those details, and to help you prove to yourself that you have retained your knowledge of those topics.

This book does not try to help you pass the exams only by memorization, but by truly learning and understanding the topics. The CCNA certi? cation is the foundation of many of the Cisco professional certi? cations, and it would be a disservice to you if this book did not help you truly learn the material. Therefore, this book helps you pass the CCNA exam by using the following methods: I Helping you discover which exam topics you have not mastered I Providing explanations and information to ? ll in your knowledge gaps I Supplying exercises that enhance your ability to recall and deduce the answers to test questions

I Providing practice exercises on the topics and the testing process via test questions on the CD 083x_FMi. book Page xxvi Thursday, July 3, 2003 12:49 PM xxvi Book Features To help you customize your study time using these books, the core chapters have several features that help you make the best use of your time: I “Do I Know This Already? ” Quizzes—Each chapter begins with a quiz that helps you determine the amount of time you need to spend studying that chapter. If you follow the directions at the beginning of the chapter, the “Do I Know This Already? quiz directs you to study all or particular parts of the chapter. I Foundation Topics—These are the core sections of each chapter. They explain the protocols, concepts, and con? guration for the topics in that chapter. If you need to learn about the topics in a chapter, read the “Foundation Topics” section. I Foundation Summary—Near the end of each chapter, a summary collects the most important information from the chapter, summarized in lists, tables, and ? gures. The “Foundation Summary” section is designed to help you review the key concepts in the chapter if you scored well on the “Do I Know This Already? quiz. This section is an excellent tool for last-minute review. I Q&A—Each chapter ends with a “Q&A” section that forces you to exercise your recall of the facts and processes described in that chapter. These questions generally are harder than those on the exam, partly because they are in “short answer” format instead of multiple-choice. These questions are a great way to increase the accuracy of your recollection of the facts. I CD-based practice exam—The companion CD contains a large number of questions not included in the book, as well as all the questions from the “Do I Know This Already” quizzes.

You can answer these questions by using the simulated exam feature or the topical review feature. This is the best tool for helping you prepare for the test-taking process. I Hands-on practice using Boson NetSim™ LE—The CD also includes the Boson NetSim for CCNA ICND Learning Edition network simulator software, supporting the ability to perform many of the commands covered in the book. In particular, you can perform many of the practice scenarios and hands-on lab exercises also included on the CD, as well as several from the book.

Appendix C details how to access the simulator, and what lab exercises can be performed. (The version of the Boson NetSimtm software included with this book is a limited functionality version. In order to access all functions and features of the software, you must purchase a full license for the software from Boson Software, Inc. ) I CD-based practice scenarios—The companion CD contains a CD-only appendix B (which is a totally different appendix as compared with the printed appendix B in the book) which has several practice scenarios.

These scenarios include several problem statements, with solutions, in order to help you pull both concepts and con? guration commands together. These scenarios are useful for building your hands-on skills, even if you do not have lab gear. You can also perform some of these scenarios using the Boson NetSim LE network simulator, or using your own lab gear. 083x_FMi. book Page xxvii Thursday, July 3, 2003 12:49 PM xxvii I CD-based lab exercises—The companion CD contains a CD-only appendix C (which is a totally different appendix as compared with the printed appendix C in the book) which has several lab exercises.

These lab exercises guide you through the steps used to perform the most popular con? guration tasks. Like the scenarios, CD-only appendix C includes the answers to the labs, making it useful to just read the materials for extra reinforcement of the commands. You can also perform these labs using the Boson NetSim LE network simulator, or using your own lab gear. I CD-based subnetting practice—The companion CD contains an appendix that has 25 additional subnetting practice problems. Each problem shows the solutions for the subnet number, broadcast address, and valid IP addresses in each subnet.

With this extra practice, you can be ready to answer subnetting questions quickly and accurately on the INTRO, ICND, and CCNA exams. How This Book Is Organized This book contains 12 core chapters—Chapters 1 through 12. Chapter 13 includes some summary materials and suggestions on how to approach the exams. Each core chapter covers a subset of the topics on the ICND exam. The core chapters are organized into four parts. The chapters cover the following topics: Part I: LAN Switching I Chapter 1, “LAN Switching Review and Con? uring Cisco 2950 LAN Switches”—If you’ve taken the INTRO exam, you might have forgotten some of the details. This chapter reviews the basics of LAN switching. It also covers some basic administrative con? guration on the 2950 series switches. I Chapter 2, “Spanning Tree Protocol”—The CCNA INTRO Exam Certi? cation Guide covers Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) brie? y; this chapter takes a deeper look, including an explanation of the newer Rapid STP (RSTP). I Chapter 3, “Virtual LANs and Trunking”—This chapter reviews the concepts of VLANs and VLAN trunking and explains the VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP).

It also covers VTP con? guration. Part II: TCP/IP I Chapter 4, “IP Addressing and Subnetting”—This chapter gets into the depths of IP addressing and subnetting. The Boolean math operations required for analyzing IP addresses are explained, and several examples are used to detail how IP subnets are created, what IP addresses are in the same subnet, and the math required to answer exam questions about subnetting. This chapter is actually a subset of Chapter 12 in CCNA 083x_FMi. book Page xxviii Thursday, July 3, 2003 12:49 PM xxviii INTRO Exam Certi? ation Guide, with only some differences in the questions at the beginning and end of the chapter. See the later section “How to Use These Books to Prepare for the CCNA Exam” for suggestions on how to use this chapter. I Chapter 5, “RIP, IGRP, and Static Route Concepts and Con? guration”—Routing Information Protocol (RIP) and Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP) are two longstanding IP routing protocols. This chapter explains their underlying logic, called distance vector, and shows you how to con? gure the protocols in a Cisco router. I

Chapter 6, “OSPF and EIGRP Concepts and Con? guration”—Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) and Enhanced IGRP (EIGRP) are two more advanced and more powerful IP routing protocols. This chapter explains their underlying logic and shows you how to con? gure them in a Cisco router. I Chapter 7, “Advanced Routing Protocol Topics”—Many IP routing protocols have similar features. This chapter covers some of the more complicated similar features of these routing protocols, including variable-length subnet masking (VLSM) support and route summarization.

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