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“Infertility refers to the failure to conceive after having regular sex without using any protection. It also refers to the inability of a person to add to conception, or to a female who cannot carry a pregnancy to full term” (American pregnancy association). In some countries it refers to couples who have been unsuccessful at conceiving after a year of regular sex without using any protection.

It is a general assumption that infertility is mainly connected to the female. In actuality, only one-third of infertility cases are connected to the female alone. Statistically, one-third of infertility troubles are connected to men and the remaining one-third is a mixture of fertility factors concerning either partner or unidentified causes. Unknown causes account for roughly twenty percent of infertility cases (American pregnancy association).

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Conception and pregnancy are complex methods that depend on a number of factors, including: 1) the creation of healthy sperm by the male, 2) healthy eggs created by the female; 3) unclogged fallopian tubes that let the sperm get to the egg; 4) the capability of the sperm to fertilize the egg when they meet up; 5) the capability of the fertilized egg to become set in the female’s uterus; and, 6) adequate embryo quality. This paper is going to look at the long-term impact of infertility on marriage.

Attention will be given to what would be called healthy marriages in which the couples had not wanted counseling for their marriage, had not considered divorce or separation, and showed reasonable attitudes about the hope of having a child and its role in making their marriage unwavering. Attention will also be given to those in unhealthy marriages distinguished by anticipated separation and an unhealthy stance towards children and a child’s ability to mend their marriage. What Causes Infertility

Infertility can involve both male and female. A common cause of male infertility is when no sperm cells are created or when hardly any sperm cells are created. Sometimes, sperm cells are abnormal or they die prior to getting to the egg. Infertility in a male is caused by a genetic disease. For males with low sperm count, supplements exist that can develop sperm. A common cause of female infertility is an ovulation condition. Troubles with ovulation have an effect on about 25% of all infertility situations.

Additional causes for female infertility consist of “blocked fallopian tubes, which can occur when a female has had pelvic inflammatory disease or endometriosis; birth defects concerning the makeup of the uterus, and uterine fibroids which are linked to recurring miscarriages”; and getting old, since the ability for ovaries to make eggs have a tendency to go down with age, particularly after age 35 (“American pregnancy association”). “In the medical field, a risk factor is something that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or symptom.

There are risk factors that have been found to contribute to infertility: age, smoking, alcohol consumption, being overweight, eating disorders, being vegan, over exercising, not exercising, STDs, exposure to chemicals, and stress” (Nordqvist). A female’s fertility usually begins to fall after age 32, and continues. A male age 50 is probably less fertile than a 20 year old male. Smoking considerably boosts the threat of infertility in males and females. Smoking could furthermore weaken the outcome of fertility treatment.

When a female becomes pregnant, the threat of miscarriage is increased if she smokes. A female’s pregnancy can be gravely influenced by the use of alcohol. Alcohol abuse can potentially decrease male productiveness. Reasonable alcohol use has not had proven results showing a decrease in the fertility in males, but is believed to decrease fertility in those with low sperm counts. In developed countries, overweight and an inactive routine are often determined to be a major cause of female infertility.

The threat of having abnormal sperm is greater for an overweight male. Females who turn out to be really underweight due to an eating disorder can possibly have fertility troubles (“National Institute of Child Health & Human Development”). A female who works out eight hours per week could potentially encounter ovulation issues. Living an inactive lifestyle has been associated with lower fertility in males and females. Chlamydia can injure the fallopian tubes, in addition to causing the male’s scrotum to be swollen.

Some other infections can also bring about infertility. Exposure to elements like pesticides, herbicides, and lead has been connected to fertility issues in both males and females. Lastly, reports point out that mental stress might have an effect on female ovulation and sperm creation. If one person is stressed, they are more than likely not going to want to have sex. This decreases the chances of conception occurring (Nordqvist). Effects of Infertility Infertility can have an effect on a marriage in a several ways.

When emotional detachment occurs, couples struggle because one of them wants to share their feelings, but the other may feel that there is nothing to talk about. Most of the time, it is the husband who is emotionally detached. He may not think that there is anything to discuss, or he may be humiliated or embarrassed if he is dealing with male infertility. On the other hand, she wants to discuss the alternatives, her stance, his stance, and their future (“Adventurous Writer”). Infertility has an effect on a marriage in a different way depending on the couple.

For some it pushes them nearer to each other. After infertility, they feel like they can endure everything together. Sadly to say, with other couples, infertility can possibly be the end of a marriage. A number of reasons exist that can explain the end of the marriage. Sometimes the marriage is just not what it used to be. They have gone through so many trials that the love has just disappeared from the marriage. For those who never conceive, it is possible that one person is not capable of conceiving and the other one still desires a child. As a result, the couple may part ways.

This may possibly be caused by hurting, embarrassment and guilt, or no communication throughout their infertility problems. This is why it is extremely vital to maintain and keep the lines of communication open during a marriage (“Adventurous Writer”). Another option for couples who are dealing with infertility is to stick together. Once you decide how to deal with the infertility, stick together on that choice. A wife needs her husband’s support when she has to endure the infertility procedures. A marriage cannot continue to exist with abandonment.

It may not dissolve a marriage, but the marriage will not be the same (Silvers). Money, fertility treatments, and debt can all contribute to infertility. Paying for in vitro fertilization treatments or plain old fertility tests can test the strongest of marriages. There are two ways couples can deal with the money issues: 1) create a budget for fertility treatments; and 2) make a decision as a couple if you are ready to go into debt to get pregnant. Be conscious that debt and money put another strain on your marriage and put forth effort to stay joined as a couple.

Having different family goals can also contribute to infertility. One person may say that they are content if they never have children. The other person may want children more than the other. The different perspectives may cause friction because you will not agree all the time on how far to go with the infertility treatments (“American Society for Reproductive Medicine”). Figuring out how to handle this is different for every couple dealing with infertility, but everyone has to agree on the goals of the family. Compromise can lead to a stronger bond.

It is possible to have a stronger marriage when dealing with infertility. Not all couples dealing with infertility are designed for separation or divorce. Many couples in fact learn how to communicate better and get to know each other on a deeper level as if they had never had an encounter with infertility (“Adventurous Writer”). How Infertility is treated “Infertility can be treated by way of using medicine, surgery, artificial insemination, or assisted reproductive technology” (“Reproductive Health & Menopause”). Sometimes the treatments will be done together.

In many instances, infertility can be tackled with medications or surgery. Doctors suggest particular treatments for infertility based on: results from tests, the length of time a couple has been trying to conceive, the male and female’s age, and the general health of the couple. There are a number of ways that doctors can treat infertility in males. One way is to help them deal with early ejaculation through behavioral therapy or medications. Another approach is surgery which has the potential to correct the condition of a male having low sperm count.

Another example is that a doctor will surgically take sperm straight out of the male procreative tract or provide antibiotics to clear up infections which may have an effect on the sperm count. Sperm movement is another way doctors can treat infertility in males. Occasionally semen has no sperm due to a block in the male’s system. Surgery will usually fix the problem. There are many fertility medicines available that doctors use to treat females with ovulation difficulties. However, there are potential dangers, benefits, and consequences to taking these types of medicines.

Some physical issues can be fixed through a surgical procedure. During artificial insemination, a specially prepared sperm is put in the female. At times the female is also treated with medicines that encourage ovulation before artificial insemination (“Reproductive Health & Menopause”). Conclusion A serious obstruction to defense against ill health is a common ethic that wrongly protects the most noticeable from the trouble of prevention and treatment. Infertility touches a voiceless minority, yet the effects are severe and out of reach for people as a whole.

Infertility is an ailment, not all the time curable or avoidable but worthy of consideration and effort. The pain endured by infertile couples is magnified by the disappointment to be mindful of the situation as a fear to the community’s welfare. “Public health is poised to contribute significantly to the development of health policy, social debate, prevention, and program development in order to alleviate the suffering cause by infertility; it is time to take action by recognizing that infertility is an issue which affects the public’s health” (Evens).

Works Cited

“4 ways infertility affects marriage – how to stay connected. ” The Adventurous Writer. N. p. , 17 2009. Web. 28 September 2012. . Evens, Emily. “International Health. ” International Health. 18. (2004): n. page. Web. 1 Nov. 2012. . “How Infertility Is Treated. ” Reproductive Health & Menopause. Aetna, 29 2010. Web. 28 September 2012. . “Infertility/Fertility. ” National Institute of Child Health & Human Development. National Institutes of Health, 29 2012. Web. 8 September 2012. . Nordqvist, Christian. “What is infertility? What causes infertility? How is infertility treated?. ” Medical News Today. N. p. , 30 2009. Web. 28 Sept 2012. . Silvers, Christie. “How Infertility Affects a Marriage. ” Yahoo Voices. N. p. , 18 2006. Web. 28 September 2012. . “Stress and Infertility. ” American Society For Reproductive Medicine. N. p. , n. d. Web. 28 September 2012. . “What is infertility? ” American pregnancy association. N. p. , n. d. Web. 28 Sept 2012. .

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