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Identify and discuss three mood disorders

Mood disorders are basically mental disorders that are characterized by a prevalent emotion such as depression, which is considered inappropriate or distorted in a given situation or circumstance. Common types of mood disorders include major depressive disorder, mania or manic episodes, and hypomania, among many others. Major depressive disorder is generally characterized by significant loss of pleasure and interest in activities that a person usually does. In simpler terms, it is basically a state wherein a person may feel sad or down due to reasons he or she cannot explain. Mania or manic episodes, on the other hand, is a severe condition in which a person a person has increased mood swings and is also usually very impulsive, hyperactive, and hypersensitive. A person with this disorder also usually displays psychotic episodes. Lastly hypomania is a mental disorder in which a person pervasively and persistently exhibits irritable moods, behaviors but shows no psychotic symptoms.

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Based on various researches, mood disorders are generally affected by both physiological and psychological factors. Physiologically, although it has not been fully established yet, it is widely believed that antidepressant medications such particularly, norepinephrine and serotonin, affect the activity neurotransmitters, which are chemical signals that transfer or relay messages across cells, and in effect, it disturbs the normal activity in the brain causing major depressive disorder. In addition, there are also researches and studies that claim that genes also play a major role in causing mood disorders. However, these findings have not been completely verified yet so they have not been widely accepted. On the other hand, psychological factors play major roles in causing mood disorders and the chief of which is stress. A person under heavy stress may experiences changes in his or her perceptions about everyday life which may lead to various mental illnesses. Traumatic experiences and events that have negative impacts on a person such as physical or sexual abuse abandonment, and neglect, are also factors that are involved in the development of mood disorders.

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