Models in Psychology
1. In relation to Erikson’s theory, describe TWO strategies discussed in class that are most central to nurturing a sense of industry in your elementary students.
Industry and Inferiority are determined during pre-teenage years in a child’s social development as determined by Erickson in his model. The first strategy that is discussed in class advises teachers to facilitate successful experiences. The second is to encourage students to feel good about something that they did well and give them proper recognition for their achievements.
2. Distinguish the three main levels in Kohlberg’s theory. (This question asks you to distinguish the three levels only: preconventional, conventional, and post-conventional thinking. You do not need to distinguish the stages within each level.)
The first level, which is preconventional, describes the stage wherein people create moral choices based on how it will later affect them, which is typical to children and teenagers. The second stage is conventional or when a person decides with regards to how his decision will affect the people around him and how they will judge him after performing the moral decision. The last level is Post-conventional which is when decisions are not anymore affected by the previously held conventions; the person develops his/her own moral standards independent of what others might think.
3. Define the Piagetian concepts of assimilation and accommodation and explain how they relate to the notion of equilibrium.
Shemes, according Piaget’s theory are cognitive structure or organized pattern of actions used to make sense of our experiences. Assimilation and Accommodation are both Adapting Schemes. Assimilation is adding or integrating something new in the previous scheme while Accommodation is changing the scheme in face of environmental demands. Balance between these two is important for a person to adapt successfully to his/her environment.
4. What is the connection between Vygotsky’s work and that of social constructivism?
Constructivism is the idea that learners should construct learning through experience. Vygotsky’s work stressed on the need of actual experience to help learners relate with what they are doing, however, they need to experience social learning which will aid them with peer guidance as well as teacher’s guidance. In both cases, you let the learner realize his/her own ability by letting them do a task on their own.
5. Describe TWO proven benefits of using cooperative learning in the classroom that we discussed in class.
Two proven benefits of cooperative learning in the classroom are peer scaffolding and active involvement in learning. Peer scaffolding help students to understand the lesson better because they each generate to the idea. They learn how to express their ideas while it enhanced their self-esteem. Active involvement in learning somehow raises the students ability to recognize and remember what is being learned since he/she actively experience what is being discussed.
6. How do the socializing agents in our lives change, as we grow older? Be sure to identify the different individuals who might serve as socializing agents across Erikson’s stages of development.
The different socializing agents that can change our lives are mostly the people around us, like our family, friends, intimate partner teachers and workmates. Different individuals affect our development, based on Erickson’s model, in different occasions of our lives. Parents, predominantly affect children from birth until toddler’s years. On the other hand, teachers, classmates and friends have the most influence during pre-teens to teenage years. During young adulthood, he or she relied on one’s intimate partner and friends. Adulthood is mostly about working together in an office and serving the society while old age comprise looking back in the past and thinking about future.
7. In applying Kohlberg’s theory to the classroom, which classroom management techniques would be best suited to individuals in the middle and high school ages?
Classroom management techniques that are best suited for individuals in middle and high school ages in relation to Kohlberg’s theory a discussion of how behavior affects other people. It is also relevant to discuss the individual’s rights and responsibilities to promote learning. Introducing school rules and discussing rights of individuals are also meaningful to discuss. This would open the mind of the students of what can be and cannot be done in school. Discussing individual rights based on the constitution would enhance their moral development by prompting them of the conventional norms that are currently in effect.
8. What implications for teaching do you take from your understanding of Piaget’s concrete and formal operational stages? Detail ONE strategy for each stage.
During Elementary Piaget as concrete operational period usually describes years. Rules of Logic applies thus, it implies that the child already understand the concept of reversibility. Field Trips could help them understand how things work and providing manipulative learning objects like basic experiments would help them understand better. Concerning formal stages, assisting students by giving them group works by following standard models like. Teachers can also provide materials and reading assignments and later ask questions that would test and guide the students understanding.
9. Give ONE specific classroom example that incorporates the two notions of the zone of proximal development and scaffolding.
Zone proximal development and scaffolding is incorporated in experiments. The teacher would show how things should be done and what are the do’s and don’ts, then the students would try to recreate the experiment on their own or within their groups. The teacher would look or supervise how the students do the act and guide them whenever they have queries or they are doing something wrong. In experiments, the students learn through observation. They try as much to imitate or follow directions. They raise questions whenever something wrong happens and through this, they learned from their mistakes. Since they experience the learning first hand, they tend to remember it and understand the concept better.
10. From our lesson on cooperative learning, list and discuss TWO things you could do to most effectively implement cooperative learning in general? I am NOT looking for a listing of the various models here, but a discussion of implementation tips/strategies that would be helpful for teachers using any of the models we discussed.
Cooperative learning in general can help students to value learning more. Informal debates about a certain topic can prove beneficial special when dealing with moral aspects. It helps students to recognize how people think and agreed upon their team regarding a certain topic. Another effective cooperative learning is through having a class project such as a play presentation wherein students took different roles and try to deliver their speeches as best as they could so as not to compromise the whole group. Role playing plays also help them understand a certain story more compare to individual reading.
Author’s Notes. Psychology. (2008)