Teaching is an activity that is in nature complex, it is affected by the behavior of a teacher, the availability of time, the subject matter, the available resources and the disposition of learners among other factors. According to Bennet (2003), a difference can be made between the methodological and the pedagogical approach of teaching, where a teacher uses selected and organized materials, instruction methods and the assessment of the students. This approach is differentiated from the interpersonal perspective which look into the relationship between the students and the teacher.
There is need for any teacher to feel free and comfortable at their area of work, which is actually the classroom and the school generally. There are important interpersonal relationships that should exist between teachers and the students. Different teachers apply different methods in managing and controlling their students. Wilson (2003) observed that, some teachers may choose to create friendly interpersonal relationships with the students, this allows the students to exercise creativity and to take risks by giving their contributions. Other teachers advocate for a disciplined environment during learning. Researchers have observed that, the preferences and interpersonal relationship of a teacher is often influenced by the background characteristics such as the experience of a teacher and gender (Fraser, & Walberg, 2003).
Use of effective instructional variables has been considered as a major factor which contributes directly to the positive performance of a teacher. According to Fraser, & Walberg (2003), effective instruction variables have been defined as the factors which directly contribute to a positive achievement of the students in the process of learning. The effective instructional variables have also been used to portray the character of a teacher, and in effect link it to the positive achievement of the learning process. These variables include; a teacher maintaining enthusiasm throughout the process of teaching. This is an important character that can be explained by the way a teacher makes body gestures, the use of good facial expression that may show interest and commitment of the teacher, use of a clear vocal expression that makes communication between the teacher and the students easy, and the teacher should also be able to communicate through eye contacts, as this can help the teacher to establish whether the students clearly understand what they are taught. Other variables may include clarity, structure, redundancy, appropriate rate and maximized engagement.
There is need for a teacher to use various activities that involve practice. This ensures that there is a good opportunity for the leaner to apply and solidify their learning process. The teacher should make sure that, students are often left to participate independently so that they can learn how to be creative and responsible. However, there is need for the teacher to continuously supervise the student and make reviews of the teaching process every now and then. This in effect ensures that students can attain a positive achievement.
Selected Characteristic/Behavior of a Teacher
The behavior of a teacher has been described as one of the most important factor that contribute both directly and indirectly to the positive achievement of the students (Williams & Burden, 2006). A teacher who is able to use the effective instruction variables is able to attain the objective of establishing a good learning atmosphere, and making the students attain a positive achievement throughout the learning process.
The characteristics of appropriate teachers presentation, portrays the behavior of the teacher when it comes to dealing with the students. According to Fraser, & Walberg (2003) the use of instruction variables by a teacher is viewed as an effective presentation, and the variables include clarity, structure, redundancy, appropriate rate, maximized engagement and enthusiasm. In addition, use of praise, feed back, and questioning are important factors that directly contribute to the learning of students. The effective variables refers to the factors that are directly associated with the positive achievement of the students in the learning process.
The behavior of a teacher should be positive while dealing with the students. A good teacher should be able to maintain enthusiasm throughout the lesson, this includes use of good eye contacts with the students, encouraging participation of the students by asking questions and inviting the opinion of the students. Use of gestures and body movements that portray confidence, a clear and loud voice, clarity and pleasant body expressions are all directly linked to the positive achievement of the students.
A teachers who encourages practice activities ensures that, there is a good opportunity for the leaner to apply and solidify their learning process. These activities may include practice that is guided, where a teacher can easily supervise students and consider how they respond, a teacher also allows the students time to practice independently, and makes reviews of the teaching process every now and then. This in effect ensures that students can attain a positive achievement.
The character of a teacher that enables him to apply the effective instruction variables, allows effective plan for the coverage of content, and use of effective strategies of teaching. According to Fraser, & Walberg (2003), a teacher must be able to properly consider the sequence and the scope, the role of objectives, pacing, curriculum and the level of the students he is dealing with when planning the instruction variables. The effective strategies of teaching include making of effective presentation by the teacher, maximization of time on task for academic purpose, review, formative of evaluation and allowing practice activities as well as monitoring them keenly. These and the above defined characteristics are viewed as components that allow effective teaching by any teacher for all the students.
Studies Relating to the Behavior of a Teacher
According to Levy, & Wubbels (2007), the character and behavior of a teacher has either a direct or indirect effect on the positive achievement of the students. It is important to appreciate that the character and behavior of a teacher is influence by various factors. The understanding of the factors that contribute to the positive interpersonal relation between the teacher and students, helps one to determine how a certain teacher is likely to behave towards the students. This is also important as it helps to determine which category of a teacher needs help in order to improve their characters. Various studies have been conducted to illustrate how various factors affect the interpersonal relationships between the teachers and the students below.
According to a research conducted by Wilson (2003), the behavior of a teacher, the preferences and interpersonal relationships are largely determined by the background characteristics of the teacher such as experience and gender. This research focused on the linking between the formal teacher behavior, the experiences of the interpersonal relationships, and how various teachers perceived their well being. Wilson (2006) observed that, the characteristic of personal relationship is greatly influenced by effective aspects that are major emotional components of the emotional states.
This study found that, the behavior of the students can influence the behaviors of a teacher especially with regard to communication. Where a teacher establishes a free atmosphere with the students and allows them the freedom to participate by taking the risk of being creative, such students tend to develop a good relationship with the teacher and open up to contributions in class. Students who show a positive and respectful attitude may also influence the behavior of a teacher in a positive manner, while those who are not free may discourage the teacher from creating an interpersonal relationship with them. The study assumes that circular communications are developed within the classroom and that this does not only determine the behavior of the teacher but also consists of certain behaviors.
Levy & Wubbels (2007) explained that questioners were used in this study, to look at the diagnosis of interpersonal personality. The researchers have stated that, interpersonal interaction has for a long time been controlled by need to avoid discomfort when developing a persons self esteem. When successful interactions are conducted severally, these develops into sufficient patterns that are recognized as a specific communication style. The dimensions of the behavior of a teacher and the capability to establish an interpersonal relationship, is formed to represent the variation of a teachers behavior. This model has for a long time been adapted to fit to the instructional settings in the environment of a classroom .
A teachers well being relates to the positive state of emotion, with regard to the harmony result between the personal expectations from the school and needs of a teacher. Bennett, (2003) posited that, the character of a teacher that allows the growth of an authentic relationship between the teacher and the students, and his capability to develop an agreeable and democratic atmosphere in the classroom is an important attribute for the best and effective form of teaching. Bennett further emphasized that, there are moral and emotional as well also cognitive materials of satisfaction in schooling. The study has therefore concluded that, effective domain is the most important element in the successive interactions between the students and the teachers.
The well being of the teacher has been considered in this study to show the connection between the wellbeing and the behavior of a teacher. This study has proved that, there is a direct connection between the wellbeing of a teacher and interpersonal behavior of a teacher. This study found out that, students need leadership and structures from the teachers, in effect teachers who were capable of ensuring a proper control of the class cooperation and communication score highly when it comes to professional wellbeing. The supposition in this study has also been approved by the argument that, teachers who encourage students to cooperate are likely to engage the students more positively and actively and this in effect meets the desire of the students because they feel more involved in the process of learning.
The second study relates to a research conducted by Williams, & Burden (2006), where the gender of a teacher is claimed to have a direct link to the behavior of the teacher. Gender has been regarded as one important aspect while looking at the way a teacher interacts with the students in the classroom.
The research was conducted to find whether female and male teachers approached students in the same way, or by use of different approaches. Using the stereotype approach, male teachers have been described as behaving more in the dominance pole and easily influences the behavior of a student. Female teachers have been described as portraying the submissive character on the other hand (Fraser, & Walberg, 2003). In considering the direction of proximity, it has been found that the behavior character of the male teachers more oftenly move towards the opposite pole, whereases the behavior of the female teachers has been described as one that promotes great corporation, and creates a good interpersonal relationship between the teacher and the students. The behavior of a female teacher can best be explained by effective and great involvement, or the great ability of females to identify themselves with their students. Researchers have been conducting more studies to see whether the supposition were valid.
This study also linked the gender of a teacher to the well being in order to determine whether the two factors combined together would affect the the behavior of a teacher. The study also considered if the well being issues were differed between a male teacher and a female teacher. The study tried to answer the question as to whether the males teachers got satisfied with their profession in the same way as the female teachers, or whether there was a gap in regard to the gender issues between the two genders.
The focus group used in this study was teachers teaching in the technical and vocational sectors in various high schools. Results from questioners, both from the soft and hard sectors have been used to avoid arriving at wrong conclusions. Researchers found that the female teachers are more positive with the type of job they do, they have often displayed satisfaction with what they do, and this has in effect contributed to the positive attitude they portray towards the students. The male teachers are said to be more ambitious and often do not get the job satisfaction they need from the teaching profession, this has in fact made them to move towards the opposite poles. The researchers therefore believe that, the female teachers can freely interact with the students and that this character contribute either directly or indirectly to the positive achievement of the students.
The result of an analysis done on this study expressed that, male teachers often score highly when it comes to the quadrant of submission-opposition than their counterparts who are the female teachers. The explanation for this has been attributed to the fact that, the female teachers are better placed to consider what the society expects from them, while it comes to the submission of opposing behavior. It has been established that teachers are not open to express that, they are not satisfied with their classroom behaviors even when they feel that they are not comfortable with the position. It has also been established that, the issue of quadrant of submission-opposition is used in the measuring of personal characters as opposed to the interpersonal relationships.
Male teachers often obtain good scores while it comes to the submission-opposition and significantly score higher within the quadrant of dominance-opposition, when a consideration is made in regard to the job security. The controversy of this discussion confirms the extreme suggestion of the position taken by the male teachers. It has been found that, male teachers who have their own children tend to be mare responsible, helpful and friendly when it comes to handling students, and are able to act as good leaders by guiding the students in various academic activities.
The third study was carried out by Vandenberghe, & Huberman (2007), in order to establish how the behavior of a teacher was affected by the issues of job security. This study used a sample of 63% of the teachers who had jobs that provide them with security and a sample of 37% teachers who did not have security in their jobs. The study also used questioners and interviews on various students and other stakeholders in order to avoid skewed results. It was established that, those teachers who do not have job security often work very hard in order to secure their positions at work. This in effect leads to a tendency of a teacher establishing a good interpersonal relationship. The teachers who do not have job security often portray pleasant and likable attitudes towards the students. This in effect leads to a positive evaluation that is important in helping the cause of these teachers.
The study conducted by Vandenberghe, & Huberman (2007) has also established that communication, control of classroom, combined with the cooperation of the students are looked at as ideal aspects, leading to a great achievement by the students. This study has lead to the suggestion that those teachers who have no security of the job, belong to the quadrant of dominance-cooperation. It is therefore concluded that, the teachers who have the security of job have the liberty and freedom to move in any direction across the poles, because they conduct their duties without the fear of threat for their job security.
The fourth study described the parental status of a teacher as essential in determining the interpersonal behavior of the teacher. According to Williams, & Burden (2006), one of the most important factors that can influence the behavior of a teacher has been attributed to the parental status of the teacher. This factor influences and affects the interpersonal behavior of a teacher towards the students. Questioners were used to interview the students while carrying out this study and a sample of teachers in the high school level and at the elementally level, were used in order to determine to what extent the parental status of a teacher affected their behavior towards the students.
Among the sample that was taken, 46% of the teachers involved did not have children while 54% of the teachers were reported to have children of their own. It was found that, those teachers who had children of their own had the capability of building two levels of interpersonal relationships with their students while at school (Timothy, & Wubbels, 2006). The first level is the interpersonal professional level at the working place, and the second one is the parental relationship at home. The teachers who are also parents are also characterized within the quadrant of dominance-cooperation. The study has however found out that, different groups of students present different and new challenges to the teachers, and the teachers have to always keep finding new equilibriums among the poles so that they may be able to deal with each new group of students that they come across every now and then.
Researchers in this study have formed an assumption that, the teachers who are also parents are well equipped to develop and establish good interpersonal relationships between the them and the students. There is a close connection between this study and the the issue of the well being of a teacher. Studies have indicated that, teachers who are parents have a high measure of the wellbeing. The conclusion of this study was that, teachers who are employed while they have their own children are in a good position to deal with the challenges faced by interacting with various groups of students. This has in effect contributed to the professional success of the parents who are employed as teachers.
The fifth study discussed in this paper concentrated on the years of experience of a teacher. A thorough study has been conducted in order to establish how the behavior of a teacher is connected to the years of working, that a teacher has been practicing in the field. According to Leary (2005), different instruments have been used to measure the dynamic issues of the behavior of a teacher, and to consider what factors may influence a certain teacher to either portray the positive characteristics likely to contribute positively to the achievement of the students, and the factors that may lead to a teacher moving towards the opposite poles and thus discouraging an interpersonal relationship between a teacher and the students. This study measured the behavior of a teacher by what was perceived by the teacher himself. The characteristics of the teacher are also used to determine and explain the specific findings.
The questioners used in this study are two, where one deals with the issue of the interaction of the teacher as designed, and the next questioner deals with the effect of years of experience on the behavior of a teacher. These questioners were filled by the teachers, and the perception of the teacher was used to determine how well the number of years of work affected the interpersonal relationship between a teacher and the students.
The teachers who were involved in this study had teaching experience of between 1 year and 39 years of experience. 17.2% had a teaching experience of below three years and about 15% had been in the teaching profession for 10 to 12 years. The study found that, it was important to consider the year factor, because this had a direct impact on the capability of a teacher to develop a positive interpersonal relationship and a positive behavior of a teacher. Teachers who have been in the field of teaching for a long time are said to have dealt with different groups of students, and that they have been able to fit in various typology quadrants (Moos, 2006). This has in effect enabled a person to use and compare a variety of experiences in order to improve interpersonal relationships.
Researchers have found that, teachers who have ample experience are capable of developing a sense of the professional form of well being than those teachers who have little experience. The capability of a teacher to feel competence enough while it comes to developing good interpersonal relationship with the students is attributed to the experience a teacher has. Teachers who are more experienced have been characterized in the quadrant of the dominance-cooperation.
The mediating role has been considered in relation to the interpersonal behavior, and has avoided the inclination of the notion which suggests that, the teachers with low experience have a low sense of their wellbeing, due to the fact that the mediating role considers that the wellbeing of the most experienced teachers can be affected by the many years of work which may lead to boredom and burnout.
An Operational Definition of a teachers Character
The effective instruction variables which are also described as the characteristics of a teacher, have been described as the variables which contribute to the positive achievement of the students. According to Engels & Schepens (2004), these variables are achieved when there is good planning of the content coverage and includes the use of proper strategies during the process of learning. The use of effective variables of instruction is considered as one of the major factors that lead to the achievement of all the students with the inclusion of the settings.
Vandenberghe, & Huberman (2007) explained that the effective presentation of a teachers behavior are also referred to as the scream variables. This include the clarity of the teacher when it comes to teachings in class and even outside. A teacher who is able to teach with clarity achieves the goal of making sure that students understand the concept taught and thus this is a direct way attaining a positive achievement from the students. Other screaming variables include appropriate rate, maximized engagement and enthusiasm. These variables encourage the students to take the risk of creativity and contribution in class, and thus improves the interpersonal relationship between the students and the teacher.
A teacher should maintain enthusiasm throughout a lesson, so as to capture the attention of the students as well as to make the learning process enjoyable. This character is well described by the way a teacher conducts himself during teaching. The vocal expression of a teacher needs to be clear, a teacher uses various gestures to explain different concepts in order to make the students understand the concept easily, the teacher should encourage the participation of the students by asking questions and appreciating the opinion given by the students. Use of direct eye contacts and a good facial expression portrays the concern and commitment of the teacher towards the students. A teacher should use praise for the active students in order to encourage other students to participate, and should also encourage feed back from the students in order to evaluate whether the students are satisfied with his performance. These characteristics are said to be essential variables in ensuring an effective learning process.
There is need for a teacher to be at ease and free while teaching, and this can best be portrayed by use of gestures that would show that the teacher is at ease, and the confidence a teacher portrays while teaching. According to Fraser, & Walberg (2003), a teacher with confidence is able to convince students easily, and is able to provide the leadership guidance needed for a successful learning of the students.
Studies that Link a teachers Behavior to Students Achievement
Various studies have examined the environment of the classroom from the approach of interpersonal behavior of a teacher, which concerns maintaining and creating a warm atmosphere in class, and a positive attitude from both the students and the teachers. Engels, & Schepens (2004), focused on the interpersonal relationship between the teachers and students and found that, it is true to say that the teachers behavior affects the achievement of students both indirectly and directly. As a result, the interpersonal relationship contribute to a better environment of learning for the students. For instance, teaching styles, teaching behavior, and the perception of the students are the factors which researchers say have influenced the learning of students.
According to Williams, & Burden (2006), a classroom is defined in three dimensions, the class relationships, goal orientation, changes and maintainance of the system as the three major factors that affect the achievement of students. This study focuses on the relationship in a classroom, the support that is offered to the students by their teachers, affiliation and involvement of students by the teachers during the learning process. The relationship between the teachers and students can best be explained in the classroom atmosphere.
The first study concentrates on the effect of communication to the achievement of the students. Brophy, & Good (2005) expressed that, this is an important factor in contributing to the positive achievement of the students. The interpersonal relationship of communication presumes that, the participants behavior largely influence each other. The behavior character of the teacher will affect the response of the students, whereas the way in which the students behave while communicating to the teacher will also affect the communication character of the teacher. Where the atmosphere of communication is suitable, a teacher is able to know the strength of a specific student, as well as their weakness through the process of interaction and is therefore able to determine how best the student can be assisted.
The other study has concentrated on the scream variables, and how such variables portrayed by a teacher would affect the positive achievement of the students (Brophy & Good, 2005). This study found that, a teacher who expresses himself to the students in a positive manner, such as confidence while attending to the students, a teacher who maintains enthusiasm throughout the process of teaching, by use of loud and clear voice, good gestures among others, is able to win the attention of the students while teaching. According to. According to Brekelmans (2004), a good teacher should also encourage the participation of the students by asking questions, giving consideration to the opinion of the students, and using praise to the students who participate and perform well in order to enhance competition among the students. This study has found that, enthusiasm is a very important factor that contributes directly to the positive achievement of the students. A teacher who is able to maintain enthusiasm throughout the lesson, is able to create an enjoyable atmosphere of learning, he is able to win the concentration of the students, and this will always ensure that students are able to grasp what they have been taught.
The Perception of other Stakeholders with Regard to Teachers Behavior
A research was conducted to look at how other stakeholders such as the parents, administrators and students view the character of a teacher and the direct contribution of the teachers behavior towards the achievement of the students. The first findings were from various parents. From an interview conducted on various parents, it has been shown that parents are very concerned about a teacher who is likely to handle their children, because they believe that the behavior of a teacher has a direct implication on the performance of the students. Parents have expressed that, a teacher who is able to establish a positive interpersonal relationship creates a good atmosphere of learning, and that this makes the students enjoy the system of learning. In effect, a student who enjoys the system of learning is able to perform well in school.
From the interview done on the parents, most of them have expressed that, a teacher should teach the students with clarity, should portray expressions that would express concern and care to the students such as good eye contacts, good gestures and body movements that would portray the concern and commitment of the teacher while teaching (Engels & Schepens, 2004). Many parents have also supported the proposition that a teacher should always encourage participation of the students by asking questions and considering the opinion of the students. While asked to select between a disciplinary method of teaching, and the use of a close interpersonal relationship between the teachers and the parents, parents decided that the later was a more effective method of teaching.
From the interview conducted on the parents, they explained that they associated the behavior of a teacher with the standard of the school. Parents stated that, good schools produce teachers with the best qualities to handle their children. A good school that is properly managed was presumed to have a rich curriculum that would enable a teacher to apply the effective instruction variables to ensure that, students attain the best results in their studies. It was argued that, such teachers have enough time to teach the students, they are relaxed and are able to work with enthusiasm including having enough time to engage the students in participation.
On the other hand, parents have argued that, low class schools have low watered curriculum systems that do not provide a good atmosphere of teaching, and thus it is hard for a teacher to develop a good interpersonal relationship with the students. It has however been established that, the personal character of a teacher may contribute to the positive behavior, the school standards not withstanding. Teachers who love their job have handled students well and have been able to apply the best instruction variables in ensuring that a positive achievement is realized from the students.
A second study was conducted by use of questioners in order to establish the characteristics of a teacher that students preferred best to encourage a positive achievement during learning. Students filled the questionnaires and most of them stated that, they liked teachers who interacted closely with them, as such teachers can easily understand the strong and weak points of the students and know how to help them.
Students also said that, teachers who taught with enthusiasm and confidence by use of a loud and clear voice, good gestures, made direct eye contacts with the students, and expressed great commitment throughout the process of teaching, were effective in contributing to a direct achievement by the students. Most students stated that, they preferred a teacher who used the interactive method of teaching by asking questions as opposed to a teacher who taught without involving students in the learning process.
Various students expressed that, they were more comfortable when being handled by a friendly teacher. It was argued that, teachers who are able to closely relate with the students create an enjoyable atmosphere of learning and are able to understand each student as an individual. In effect, such a teacher is able to know how a specific student should be handled in order to ensure that the student performs well in class. Students expressed that, they preferred an interactive method of teaching as opposed to the system where teachers preferred use of discipline and punishment as a way of teaching. Several students stated that, they liked teachers who exposed them to the risk of making trial and error by giving their opinion during the learning process. This is because the independence of contribution encouraged the students to be creative and enhanced their thinking capacity, hence leading to a positive achievement by the students.
1, Enthusiasm- The teacher has a high score with regard to the way he maintains enthusiasm throughout the lesson, the score is 9 out of 10.
2, Use of gestures- The character of the teacher with regard to the use of gestures can described as above average, there is however need for the teacher to improve on the use of gesture while teaching.
3, The use of facial expression- Facial expression has scored low points and does not portray a good instruction variable in the process of teaching. The score is 6 out of 10, there is need for the teacher to work on this area.
4, Vocal expression- The vocal expression of the teacher is above average, but needs to be improved in order to a attain a good and a positive achievement from the students.
5, Clarity- The teacher has scored highly when it comes to making certain points and concepts clear to the students. It is important that this effort is maintained as it is a direct factor contribution towards good achievement of the students in learning.
6, Acceptance of students opinion- The acceptance of students opinion by the teacher is medium. This character needs to be improved in order to realize the goals and objectives of the learning process.
7, The body movement- The body movement of the teacher is medium and may also need to be improved.
8, Eye contact- The eye contact is average, the teacher has been able to communicate with the students using the eye contacts, but still needs to make more efforts to improve on this.
The focal point considered in this paper is the teacher, and more specifically, the way in which the behavior and characteristics of a teacher affects the interpersonal behavior between the teacher and the students, and the effect of this on the positive achievement of the students. From the above foregoing, the character and behavior of a teacher are directly linked with the performance of the students. Results of this research have also indicated that, the behavior and character of a teacher are influenced by various factors including the gender of the teacher, as a factor that influences perception of the teacher to the interpersonal behavior (Fraser, & Walberg, 2003). Other factors that affect the behavior of a teacher include the years of experience, it has been found that teachers who have an the response of the students in class, the parental status of a teacher and the well being of the teacher. The study has shown that, teachers who are favored by the factors affecting their behavior have a positive attitude towards their profession and are able to create good interpersonal relationships with the students, hence leading to a positive achievement of the students.
This paper has described the effective character and behavior of a teacher in depth. These includes the enthusiasm expression of a teacher expressed by use of appropriate body gestures, proper facial expression, creating direct eye contacts with the students, encouraging the participation of the students, use of praise for the active students and inviting the opinion of the students. These have been considered as direct components contributing to the positive achievement of the students.
From the above analysis, it has been found that, teachers should encourages practice activities to ensures that, there is a good opportunity for the leaner to apply and solidify their learning process. These activities may include practice that is guided, where a teacher can easily supervise students and consider how they respond, a teacher should also allow the students enough time to practice independently, and make reviews of the teaching process every now and then. This is considered as one of the important character of a teacher that contributes directly to the positive performance of a student.
The effective character and behavior of a teacher is portrayed by the use of effective instruction variables. The use of instruction variables by a teacher is viewed as an effective presentation, and the variables include some of the characters mentioned above such as; clarity, structure, redundancy, appropriate rate, maximized engagement of the students by the teacher and enthusiasm. The effective variables refer to the factors that are directly associated with the positive achievement of the students in the learning process (Brekelmans, 2004).
The study has established that, effective use of questioning techniques helps the teacher to know how well the students have been able to capture the concept taught, this is an effective variable because, it helps a teacher to clarify any point that may seem not clear to the students by considering their response. Muijs & Reynolds (2005) expressed the concern that, the use of a clear and loud voice by a teacher, and good eye expressions have also been considered as effective contributors to the learning of the students. A teachers who look at students in a manner suggesting love and care encourage the students to get free and establish good interpersonal relationships as opposed to a teacher with harsh looks.
From the above foregoing, various stakeholders have supported the believe that, use of effective instruction variables by the teachers directly contribute to the positive achievement of the students. From a research conducted in this study, various parents have commented that the maintainance of enthusiasm by a teacher throughout the process of learning is one of the important factors that helps to enhance the concentration of the students, encourage participation and interaction between the teacher of the students.
The interview conducted also proved that, students liked to be handled by teachers who were likely to establish a good interpersonal relationship with them. According to Brophy, & Good, (2005), students have shown that they prefer a free learning atmosphere where a teacher gives them the freedom to air out their views and opinion, as this improved their creativity and enhanced their capacity of reasoning. Both the teachers and the students expressed that they did not like the teaching method which involved the use of discipline and punishment as a way of controlling the students. The study has shown that, when a teacher portrays a harsh character, this instills fear in the students who tend to keep away from the teacher. In effect, the teacher cannot understand the students well and the learning process becomes tense and ineffective.
It is appropriate and important for all the teachers to understand that their behavior and characteristics have a direct impact on the achievement of the students. A teacher should therefore learn the required skills in order to ensure that, he can effectively apply the effective instruction variables, that he can establish a good interpersonal relationship with the students, so that the main objective of students achieving the positive results in learning can be realized (Fraser, & Walberg, 2003).
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