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Multicultural literature for children and young adults

            Th?s ?ss?y ?s d?d?c?t?d t? th? d?scuss??n ?f mult?cultur?l l?t?r?tur? ?n ch?ldr?n’s cl?ssr??m, w?th “?duc?t??n ?f L?ttl? Tr??” by F?rr?st C?rt?r ?s ?n ?x?mpl?.

F?rst publ?sh?d ?n 1976, th?s ?ut?b??gr?ph?c?l w?rk c?nt??ns F?rr?st C?rt?r’s – L?ttl? Tr??’s – r?m?mbr?nc?s ?f l?f? w?th h?s ??st?rn Ch?r?k?? H?ll c?untry gr?ndp?r?nts ?n th? 1930s. Th?r? ?r? 21 ch?pt?rs, r?c?unt?ng hum?r?us ?nd s?r??us ?p?s?d?s fr?m ? 5-y??r p?r??d ?nd d??l?ng w?th th? th?m?s ?f gr?w?ng up, ?nd??n l?f? ?nd v?lu?s, f?m?ly r?l?t??nsh?ps, ?nd th? r?l?t??nsh?p ?f m?n ?nd th? ??rth. Th? b??k b?g?ns wh?n th? ?uth?r ?s 5 y??rs ?ld ?nd g??s t? l?v? w?th h?s gr?ndp?r?nts ?ft?r th? d??th ?f h?s p?r?nts.

Th? f?rst ch?pt?r t?lls h?w h? w?s g?v?n th? n?m? ?f L?ttl? Tr?? by h?s gr?ndm?th?r ?nd d?scr?b?s th? m?unt??n h?ll?w ?nd th? c?b?n wh?r? h? w?ll l?v? w?th h?s gr?ndp?r?nts. ?n th? s?c?nd ch?pt?r, L?ttl? Tr?? l??rns t? hunt w?ld turk?y w?th h?s gr?ndf?th?r ?nd l??rns th? Ch?r?k?? ?th?cs ?f hunt?ng. ?th?r ch?pt?rs t?ll ?f b?rr?w?ng gr??t b??ks fr?m th? l?br?ry, f?x hunt?ng, fr??nds ?nd fr??ndsh?ps, gr?ndf?th?r’s tr?d? ?f wh?sk?y-m?k?ng, g?th?r?ng f??d, f?m?ly h?st?ry, pl?nt?ng, r?l?g??n ?nd g??ng t? church, ?nd b??rd?ng sch??l. Th? f?n?l ch?pt?r r?l?t?s th? d??ths ?f L?ttl? Tr??’s gr?ndf?th?r ?nd gr?ndm?th?r ?nd h?s d?c?s??n t? h??d w?st ?n h?s ?wn.

            ?n g?n?r?l, th? b??k d?scr?b?s ? l?ttl? f?v?-y??r-?ld b?y wh? w?s l?ft ?rph?n?d ?ft?r h?s m?th?r d??d ?nd b?c?m? ?tt?ch?d t? ?n ?nd??n m?n. ?tt?ch?d f?gur?t?v?ly ?s th??r ?y?s m?t ?t th? fun?r?l ?nd th? l?ttl? b?y r?n ?nd hung ?n h?s l?g ?nd w?uld n?t l?t g?. ?t w?s d?c?d?d th?t th? b?y c?uld g? t? l?v? w?th th?m ?n Ch?r?k?? c?untry ?nd th? ?nd??n c?upl? d?c?d?d t? c?ll h?m L?ttl? Tr??. ?t ?s ?xpl??n?d th?t th? b?y’s m?th?r w?s ? r?l?t?v? ?f th? ?ld?r c?upl?. Th? b??k ?s wr?tt?n ?n th? f?rst p?rs?n ?f th? l?ttl? b?y ?nd l?v?ng ?nd l??rn?ng th? w?ys ?f th? ?nd??ns. H? c?lls th?s c?upl? Gr?np? ?nd Gr?nm? ?nd d?scr?b?s th??r l?f? ?n th? w??ds. ?t ?s ? ch?rm?ng b??k ?nd w?ll d?scr?b?s l?v?ng ?nd l??rn?ng th? ?nd??n l?f?. Th? l?ngu?g? s?m?t?m?s ?nt?rf?r?s w?th th? fl?w ?f th? b??k ?nd th?ugh th?s ?s th? w?y th? Ch?r?k?? ?nd??n sp??ch p?tt?rn, ?t d??s t?k? g?tt?ng us?d t??.

            Th? ?nd??n c?upl? ?s v?ry ?tt?ch?d t? L?ttl? Tr?? ?nd tr??s t? ?duc?t? h?m by Gr?nm? r??d?ng s?v?r?l b??ks t? h?m fr?m th? l?br?ry ?nd t??ch?ng h?m w?rds fr?m th? d?ct??n?ry. Gr?np? h?s ? bus?n?ss ?f m?k?ng m??nsh?n? ?nd ?t ?s kn?w f?r th? b?st ?n th? ?r?? but ?t ?ll h?s t? b? k?pt s?cr?t. Th?s b??k t?k?s pl?c? ?n th? 1930’s ?s th? g?v?rnm?nt ?s try?ng t? d?str?y ?ll l?qu?r m?k?ng bus?n?ss?s. L?ttl? Tr?? h?lps h?s Gr?np? ?s th?r? ?r? j?bs th?t h? c?uld d? l?k? scrubb?ng ?ut th? b??l?r ?ft?r ??ch b?tch ?f l?qu?r ?s p?ur?d ?ff. H? ?ls? h?lps h?s Gr?np? c?rry th?s? w?r?s t? th? st?r? wh?r? ?t ?s tr?d?d f?r g??ds th?y n??d.

            Th? ?uth?r g??s ?nt? d?t??l ?b?ut th? c?b?n th?y l?v? ?n ?nd w??d?d ?r?? th?y ?r? f?m?l??r w?th. L?ttl? Tr?? ?s t?ught ?b?ut n?tur?, ?n?m?ls, gr?w?ng cr?ps such ?s th? c?rn f?r th? st?ll, ?nd ?b?ut p??pl? th?y m??t. ?t g??s ?nt? d?t??l ?f th? b??ks th?y ch?ck ?ut ?f th? l?br?ry f?r Gr?nm? t? r??d ?s Gr?np? c?nn?t r??d. Th?y ch?ck ?ut cl?ss?cs ?nd th? l?br?r??n g?v?s th?m ?th?r b??ks sh? th?nks w?rthy ?f L?ttl? Tr?? t? h??r ?b?ut. Th??r j?urn?y t? th? s?ttl?m?nt ?s ?lw?ys ? tr??t t? s?? wh?t ?s g??ng ?n. Th?y ?tt?nd ? church b?c?us? th?y m?t ? c?rt??n p?rs?n th?y ?ll l?k?d. Wh?n h? d??d th?y st?pp?d g??ng t? church. L?f? w?s g??d ?nd L?ttl? Tr?? w?s ?nj?y?ng ?nd gr?w?ng t? l?v? th? w??ds.

            Th? ?uth?r d?v?d?d th? b??k ?nt? tw?nty ?n? ch?pt?rs wh?ch t?k?s ?n? fr?m L?ttl? Tr?? ?f 5 y??rs ?ld unt?l ? f?w s??s?ns l?t?r. ?t d?scr?b?s ?n? f?ll wh?n th? p?l?t?c??ns c?m? ?s th?t ?s wh?t th?y c?ll?d th? m?n ?nd w?m?n c?m?ng t? th? c?b?n. Th?y h?d ? p??c? ?f p?p?r th?t s??d th?t L?ttl? Tr?? sh?uld g? t? sch??l ?nd w?uld b? t?k?n t? ?n ?rph?n?g? wh?r? h? c?uld b? ?duc?t?d. Gr?np? ?nd Gr?nm? c?uld n?t f?nd h?lp t? ?v?rr?d? th?s p?p?r ?nd s? L?ttl? Tr?? w?s s?nt t? ?n ?rph?n?g?.

            L?ttl? Tr?? w?s n?t w?lc?m? th?r? ?nd w?s tr??t?d b?dly ?s h? w?s kn?wn ?s ?n ?nd??n ?nd ?n ?utc?st. ?n Chr?stm?s D?y h? w?nt ?uts?d? ?nd s?t und?r ? tr?? w?th h?s f?v?r?t? b?x ?f k??ps?k?s wh?n h? l??k?d up Gr?np? w?s w?lk?ng t?w?rds h?m. Gr?ndp? h?d c?m? t? t?k? h?m b?ck ?s h? b?l??v?d h? w?s b??ng tr??t?d b?dly. Th?y ?sc?p?d th? ?rph?n?g? ?s wh?n th?s b?g ?nd??n c?m? th? ?rph?n?g? d?d n?t put up ? fuss ?s th?y c?uld b? r?d ?f th?s ?nd??n b?y. Th? ?nd ?f th? b??k c?m?s ?s L?ttl? Tr?? st?ys w?th Gr?np? ?nd Gr?nm? unt?l th?y p?ss ?w?y. Th?r? ?s ? t?uch?ng st?ry ?s d??th c?m?s t? th? m?unt??n ?nd d??th ?s d?scr?b?d ?s l?f? g??s ?n. L?ttl? Tr?? tr??s t? m?k? th? l?ng v?y?g? t? ?kl?h?m? wh?r? th? N?t??n ?f Ch?r?k?? tr?b?s w?s r?-l?c?t?d. H? st?rt?d ?ut w?th tw? ?f th? d?gs ?nd k?pt l??k?ng f?r ?n?th?r m?unt??n ?t ?nds wh?n th? l?st d?g d??s ?n h?s ?rms ?n wh?t h? c?ll?d th??r m?unt??n.

            ?n d?c?d?ng wh?th?r th?s b??k sh?uld b? ch?s?n f?r ch?ldr?n’s l?br?ry ?nd pr?v?d?d f?r r??d?ng ? h?v? turn?d my ?tt?nt??n t? c?rt??n ?mp?rt?nt p??nts. F?rst ?f ?ll, ?t ?s g?n?r?l ?ccur?cy. B??ks sh?uld c?nt??n curr?nt, c?rr?ct ?nf?rm?t??n, w?th th? c?ns?d?r?t??n h?w ?ld th? ph?t?s ?nd p?ctur?s ?r?. Th?s ?s ? p?s?t?v? p??nt f?r “L?ttl? Tr??” ?s ?t h?s surv?v?d num?r?us ?d?t??ns ?nd r?c?ntly th? 25th ?nn?v?rs?ry ?d?t??n c?m? up. ?t ?s v?ry w?ll pr?nt?d ?nd h?s b??ut?ful ?llustr?t??ns. ?s f?r th? pl?t, th?r? ?s ? b?l??f th?t wh?l? c?ns?d?r?ng stud?nts’ ?g?s, st?r??s sh?uld n?t f?rc? ?rt?f?c??lly h?ppy ?nd?ngs. Th?s st?ry t??ch?s ch?ldr?n t? ?cc?pt d??th ?nd ?ppr?c??t? p??pl? ?nd th??r l?ss?ns wh?l? th?y ?r? ?l?v?.

            Ch?ldr?n’s b??ks sh?uld n?t r??nf?rc? st?r??typ?s. ?t ?s ?sp?c??lly tru? f?r mult?cultur?l l?t?r?tur?. B??ks sh?uld r?fl?ct ?nd?v?du?l p??pl?’s l?v?s, r?th?r th?n ?ss?gn?ng g?n?r?l p?rs?n?l?ty tr??ts ?r b?h?v??rs t? ?n ?nt?r? gr?up ?f p??pl?. ?n th?s b??k th? l?f? ?f N?t?v? ?m?r?c?ns ?s ?n ?thn?c gr?up ?s w?ll-b?l?nc?d w?th th? st?ry ?f p?rs?n?l gr?wth ?f th? m??n ch?r?ct?r. H?ld?ng p?w?rful p?s?t??ns ?s ?ls? und?ubt?dly t?k?n ?nt? ?cc?unt. Wh? h?s pr?bl?ms? Wh? s?lv?s pr?bl?ms? M?n ?nd p??pl? ?f ?ur?p??n d?sc?nt sh?uld n?t pr?v?d? ?ll th? s?lut??ns. Th?s st?ry ?mph?s?z?s th? un?qu? p?w?r ?f N?t?v? ?m?r?c?ns ?nd th? f?ct th?t th?y ?ls? r??l?z? th? ?mp?rt?nc? ?f b??ks ?nd ?duc?t??n. Th? b??k ?ls? ?mp?w?rs ? f?m?l? ch?r?ct?r, L?ttl? Tr??’s “Gr?nm?”.

            Th? b??k ?nclud?s ?ccur?t? s?tt?ngs, wh?ch ?r? n?t st?r??typ?d. F?r ?x?mpl?, ? st?r??typ?d ?m?g? m?ght pr?s?nt ?ll N?t?v? ?m?r?c?n p??pl? ?n t?p??s, but N?t?v? ?m?r?c?ns h?st?r?c?lly h?v? l?v?d ?n v?r??us typ?s ?f h?m?s ?nd N?t?v? ?m?r?c?ns ?r? p?rt ?f pr?s?nt s?c??ty. Th?s ?s ?ls? ? m?ss?g? th? st?ry puts f?rw?rd.

            H?w?v?r, ? h?v? t? m?k? ? d?sc?ur?g?ng r?m?rk c?nc?rn?ng th? l?ngu?g?. Th? b??k d?v?d?s th? ch?r?ct?rs ?nt? tw? gr?ups: th?s? wh? sp??k st?nd?rd ?ngl?sh ?nd th?s? wh? d?n’t. Th?s d?v?s??n c?n r??nf?rc? st?r??typ?s th?t ?ll p??pl? ?n ? gr?up sp??k ?n ? p?rt?cul?r w?y. H?w?v?r, ?s ? b??k ?nclud?s th? l?ngu?g? ?f ? sp?c?f?c cultur?, th? ?ctu?l l?ngu?g? d??s ?pp??r, n?t n?ns?ns? w?rds ?r ?n ?nv?nt?d l?ngu?g? th?t m?m?cs th? ?uth?nt?c ?n?.

            ?n?th?r ?mp?rt?nt p??nt ?s ?llustr?t??ns. Th?y sh?uld c?nv?y th? r??l?ty th?t m?mb?rs ?f ?ny ?thn?c gr?up l??k d?ff?r?nt fr?m ?n? ?n?th?r. ?s ? h?v? ?lr??dy m?nt??n?d ??rl??r, th? ?llustr?t??ns ?n th? b??k ?r? sup?rb ?nd v?ry much r??l?st?c.

            Th? ?ssu? ?f ?uth?r’s p?rsp?ct?v? ?s ? t?ugh ?n?. Th?r? ?x?st d?ff?r?nt v??ws c?nc?rn?ng th?s p??nt. S?m? p??pl? b?l??v? th?t wr?t?rs sh?uld b?l?ng t? th? cultur?s th?y d?scr?b?; ?th?rs b?l??v? th?t ?t’s ?n?ugh ?f wr?t?rs ?mp?th?z? w?th m?mb?rs ?f ? cultur? ?v?n th?ugh wr?t?ng fr?m ?n ?uts?d?r’s p??nt ?f v??w. H?w?v?r, ?t ?s tru? th?t wr?t?rs sh?uld ?v??d tr??t?ng cultur?l pr?ct?c?s ?s ?x?t?c. ?s th?s b??k ?s ?ut?b??gr?ph?c?l, ?t ?s ? st?ry ?f ?n?th?r cultur? t?ld by th? r?pr?s?nt?t?v? ?f th?s cultur?, th?r?f?r? ?t ?s h?ghly ?nf?rm?t?v? ?nd tru?-t?-l?f?.  ?n ?dd?t??n, th? st?ry d?scuss?s un?v?rs?l th?m?s l?k? fr??ndsh?p ?nd f?m?ly, wh?ch ?pp??l t? ch?ldr?n w?th?n ?nd ?uts?d? ?f ? g?v?n cultur?.

            G?n?r?lly, m?ny l?ngu?g? ?rts t??ch?rs h?v? ?tt?mpt?d t? pr?m?t? cr?sscultur?l c?mp?t?nc? by ?nclud?ng b??ks ?n th??r curr?culum fr?m ?uth?rs r?pr?s?nt?ng ? w?d? v?r??ty ?f cultur?l gr?ups. ?lth?ugh th?s ?ff?rt ?s ? cruc??l c?mp?n?nt ?f pr?m?t?ng cr?ss-cultur?l c?mp?t?nc?, v?ry f?w l?ngu?g? ?rts pr?gr?m gu?d?s ?x?st th?t d?m?nstr?t? th? ?mp?rt?nc? ?f r??d?ng l?t?r?tur? sp?c?f?c?lly d?p?ct?ng ?nt?r?ct??n b?tw??n ?r ?m?ng d?ff?r?nt cultur?l gr?ups.

            Th? ?mp?rt?nc? ?f cr?ss-cultur?l c?mp?t?nc? ?s ? pr?m?ry g??l ?f mult?cultur?l ?duc?t??n ?s ?mb?d??d ?n B?nks’ (1994) th??ry ?f mult?pl? ?ccultur?t??n. Mult?pl? ?ccultur?t??n th??ry r?fut?s th? ?d?? th?t ? d?m?n?nt Wh?t? ?ngl?-S?x?n Pr?t?st?nt cultur? ?s th? s?ngl? f?rc? ?f ?ccultur?t??n ?n th? Un?t?d St?t?s. Th? th??ry sp??ks ?f ? m?r? c?mpl?x ?ccultur?t??n pr?c?ss ?n wh?ch Wh?t? ?ngl?-S?x?n Pr?t?st?nt cultur? ?nflu?nc?s ?th?r n?n-Wh?t? cultur?s ?nd ?s ?nflu?nc?d by n?n-Wh?t? cultur?s. Th?s pr?c?ss ?s n?t un?f?rm ?r st?t?c; ?t ?s dyn?m?c ?nd ?ft?n v?r??s ?n d?gr?? ?nd qu?l?ty ?cc?rd?ng t? ? v?r??ty ?f c?rcumst?nc?s.

            Ch?ldr?n’s l?t?r?tur? ?nd l?t?r?tur? d?scuss??ns ?r? w?d?ly c?ns?d?r?d c?t?lysts f?r ch?ldr?n t? ?xpl?r? th? w?rld ?nd n?g?t??t? ?r ?ff?rm th??r pl?c? ?n ?t (F?rr?s ; Fuhl?r, 1994; L?ng?r, 1988; L?vd?hl, 1993; N?ll, 1994; R?s?nbl?tt, 1978). F?rr?s ?nd Fuhl?r (1994) n?t?d th?t “p?ctur? b??ks pr?s?nt m?m?r?bl? s?c??l d?t? ?b?ut p??pl?’s ?ct??ns, ?nflu?nc? stud?nt ?cqu?s?t??ns ?f th? sp?c?f?c l?ngu?g? us?d t? c?mmun?c?t? th?t ?nf?rm?t??n, ?nd pr?m?t? ? suppl?n?ss ?f m?nd n??d?d t? ?ss?m?l?t? c?nt?nt ?r?? kn?wl?dg?” (p. 381). Th?y ?ls? st?t?d th?t s?ns?t?v? t?p?cs ?r? m?r? ??s?ly pr?s?nt?d ?nd m?r? r??d?ly und?rst??d w?th p?ctur? b??ks. L?stly, th??r r?s??rch r?p?rt?d th?t p?ctur? b??ks pr?m?t? cur??s?ty, ?n ?ss?nt??l f?ct?r f?r l??rn?ng n?w m?t?r??l.

            ?n-d?pth ?xpl?r?t??n r?v??ls th? subst?nt??l d?gr?? ?f ?v??l?b?l?ty ?f p?ctur? b??ks th?t d?p?ct ?nt?r?ct??n b?tw??n ch?r?ct?rs ?f d?ff?r?nt cultur?l gr?ups. Furth?r, ?t ?llustr?t?s th?t m?ny ?f th?s? b??ks c?nt??n m?t?r??l th?t c?n pr?m?t? ?d?nt?ty d?v?l?pm?nt, m?d?l p?s?t?v? ?nt?rgr?up b?h?v??r, ?nd f?st?r cr?ss-cultur?l c?mp?t?nc?. ?lth?ugh m?st ?m?r?c?ns h?v? str?ng ?ff?l??t??ns w?th ?n? pr?m?ry cultur?l gr?up, ?ur ?d?nt?ty ?s l?rg?ly mult?cultur?l. B??ks th?t h?lp ?llum?n?t? th?s mult?pl? ?ccultur?t??n ?nd ?v?rl?pp?ng ?d?nt?ty pr?c?ss c?n pr?m?t? p?s?t?v? mult?cultur?l ?d?nt?ty d?v?l?pm?nt by h?lp?ng ch?ldr?n und?rst?nd th??r s?m?l?r?t??s ?nd d?ff?r?nc?s ?nd s?m? ?f th? ?r?g?ns ?f th?s? tr??ts. Th?s ?s cruc??l t? cr??t?ng ? cl?ssr??m c?mmun?ty ?n wh?ch ?v?ry?n? ?s v?l?d?t?d ?nd ?cc?pt?d ?r ?n wh?ch s?ns?t?v? ?ssu?s n??d t? b? ?p?nly d?scuss?d.

            Mult?pl? ?ccultur?t??n sh?uld n?t b? c?nfus?d w?th th? “?v?ryb?dy c?ntr?but?s t? ?m?r?c?n cultur?” sl?g?ns. Th? l?tt?r ?d?? sugg?sts th?t v?r??us cultur?s c?ntr?but? t? ?n ?lr??dy ?st?bl?sh?d d?m?n?nt cultur?. ? m?r? r??l?st?c p?rsp?ct?v? ?s ?n? ?n wh?ch v?r??us cultur?s ?r? v??w?d ?n ? dyn?m?c pr?c?ss wh?r?by th?y tr?nsf?rm ??ch ?th?r thr?ugh ?dd?ng t?, subtr?ct?ng fr?m, ?nd bl?nd?ng w?th ??ch ?th?r ?n v?ry?ng d?gr??s b?s?d ?n ? r?ng? ?f ?nd?v?du?l, ?nv?r?nm?nt?l, ?nd h?st?r?c?l f?ct?rs.

            ?n? c?nst?nt ?nd ?ncr??s?ng ?sp?ct ?f mult?pl? ?ccultur?t??n th?t ?s ?ft?n ?v?rl??k?d ?n th?s c?untry ?s th? ?xt?nt t? wh?ch ?nt?rr?c??l m?rr??g?s ?nd s?xu?l r?l?t??ns h?v? y??ld?d b?r?c??l ?nd mult?r?c??l ch?ldr?n. Such un??ns d? n?t ?lw?ys st?m fr?m ?r r?sult ?n br??d?r p??c?ful ?nt?rr?c??l ?nt?r?ct??n, but th?y h?v? ?x?st?d s?nc? th? ??rl??st c?nt?ct b?tw??n ?nd?v?du?ls ?f d?ff?r?nt r?c??l ?nd cultur?l b?ckgr?unds. ?n r?c?nt d?c?d?s, ?nt?rr?c??l r?l?t??nsh?ps ?n th? Un?t?d St?t?s h?v? gr?wn c?ns?d?r?bly ?nd h?v? pr?mpt?d ? l?rg? numb?r ?f s?c??l ?nd supp?rt gr?ups f?r m?x?d r?c? r?l?t??nsh?ps ?nd mult?r?c??l ch?ldr?n.

            ?n ? h?ghly r?c??l?z?d, ?ft?n r?c?st s?c??ty, ?t ?s t?? ??sy t? ?gn?r? ?r r?nd?r ?ns?gn?f?c?nt h?st?r?c?l ?nd c?nt?mp?r?ry ?v?d?nc? ?f p?s?t?v? ?nt?rcultur?l ?nt?r?ct??ns. Th?s? b??ks r?m?nd r??d?rs th?t such ?nc?d?nts d? ?ccur by th? r?t?ll?ng ?f ?r?l h?st?r??s ?nd f?m?ly st?r??s ?nd by pr?v?d?ng ?v?d?nc? ?f b?r?c??l f?m?l??s. Th?y d? n?t ?lw?ys h?ghl?ght h?rm?n??us r?l?t??nsh?ps, but th?y ?ft?n pr?v?d? ? m?d?l f?r n?g?t??t?ng d?ff?cult??s b?tw??n m?mb?rs ?f d?ff?r?nt cultur?l gr?ups. ?nc? ?g??n, th?s ?s ?n ?mp?rt?nt c?mp?n?nt ?f ? h??lthy cl?ssr??m.

            ? d? n?t w?nt t? sugg?st th?t b??ks d?p?ct?ng ?nt?rcultur?l ?nt?r?ct??n sh?uld b? th? s?l? c?nt?nt ?f ? mult?cultur?l l?t?r?tur? curr?culum. ?n th? c?ntr?ry, such ? curr?culum c?uld n?t ?d?qu?t?ly d??l w?th th? structur?l ?n?qu?l?ty th?t ?x?sts b?tw??n r?c??l gr?ups ?n ?m?r?c?n s?c??ty. H?nc?, ?t ?s ?mp?rt?nt th?t ?n? c?ns?d?rs th?s? b??ks ?s ?dd?t??ns t? ? mult?cultur?l curr?culum th?t ?nclud?s s?ngl? gr?up stud??s ?nd s?c??l r?c?nstruct??n?st ph?l?s?ph??s.

            F?n?lly, b??ks th?t d?p?ct ?nt?r?ct??n b?tw??n d?ff?r?nt cultur?l gr?ups ?ft?n pr?v?d? m?d?ls ?f ?nd?v?du?ls l??rn?ng ?b?ut cultur?s d?ff?r?nt fr?m th??r ?wn pr?m?ry gr?up ?ff?l??t??ns ?n n?rm?l, ?v?ryd?y ?ct?v?t??s. ?n m?ny c?s?s, th?s? ch?r?ct?rs ?d?pt wh?t th?y h?v? l??rn?d; ?t b?c?m?s p?rt ?f th??r cultur?l b?h?v??r. Ch?ldr?n (?nd ?dults) ?ft?n f??r ?nd r?s?st cr?ss?ng ?v?r ?nt? ?n?th?r pr?m?ry gr?up. Ch?ldr?n’s l?t?r?tur? c?n ?ss?st ?n f?st?r?ng cr?ss-cultur?l c?mp?t?nc?, th?r?by h?lp?ng t? ?ll?v??t? s?m? ?f th? f??r ?nd r?s?st?nc?.

            ?n c?nclus??n, ? w?uld l?k? t? s?y th?t ? h?ghly r?c?mm?nd th?s b??k f?r ch?ldr?n’s r??d?ng ?n ?l?m?nt?ry sch??l cl?ssr??m. Wh?l? r??s?ng th? ?ssu?s wh?ch ?r? f?m?l??r ?nd ?mp?rt?nt f?r ?ny ch?ld r?g?rdl?ss ?f r?c??l ?nd ?thn?c b?ckgr?und, “?duc?t??n ?f L?ttl? Tr??” by F?rr?st C?rt?r truthfully d?p?cts th? l?f? ?f N?t?v? ?m?r?c?ns. ?t g??s ?nt? d?t??ls, ?nd wh?l? th? l?ngu?g? ?s s?mpl? f?r f?v?- t? s?v?n-y??r-?lds t? und?rst?nd, ?t ?s n?t ?v?rly pr?m?t?v? ?nd m?k?s ?n? ?w?r? b?th ?f cultur?l d?ff?r?nc?s ?nd ?f th? f?ct th?t ?ll hum?ns h?v? s?m?l?r v?lu?s ?nd d?s?r?s. Th? tr?g?dy ?f d??th ?nd th? ?mp?rt?nc? ?f p?rs?n?l gr?wth ?nd f?m?ly l?v? c?nn?t b? d?m?n?sh?d just b?c?us? ?t ?s ?xp?r??nc?d by ? r?pr?s?nt?t?v? ?f ?n?th?r ?thn?c gr?up. ?n sh?rt, th?s ?s ? g??d b??k f?r ch?ldr?n’s mult?cultur?l ?duc?t??n, ?nd ?t ?s ?dv?s?bl? t? ?nclud? ?t ?nt? c?ll?ct?v? ?r ?nd?v?du?l r??d?ng pr?gr?ms f?r ?l?m?nt?ry stud?nts.

Works Cited

Allender, Dale and Adams, Pat (1999). “Multicultural Literature: an Essay”, Multicultural Perspectives. Vol. 1, issue 2, pp. 33-37.
Banks, J. (1994). “Multiethnic education: Theory and practice”, 3rd edition, Boston: Allyn ; Bacon.
Carter, Forrest (2001). “The Education of Little Tree”, University of New Mexico Press; 25th anniversary edition.
Farris, P., ; Fuhler, C. (1994). “Developing social studies concepts through picture books”, The Reading Teacher, 47, pp. 380-387.
Langer, J. A. (1988). “The role of literature in cognitive development in reading, writing, and civic literacy: A conference report”,  New York: State University of New York Press.
Livdahl, B. (1993). “To read it is to live it, different from just knowing it”, Journal of Reading, 37, pp. 192-200.
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Rosenblatt, L. (1978). “The reader, the text, the poem: The transactional theory of literary work”, Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press.

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