A summary of “From Homer to hip-hop: A tribute to Walter J. Ong”
Walter Jo Ong (1912-2003) was a born in 1932 to staunch Christians in Kansas City. He has worked with printers and newspaper, and has studied English. More importantly, is that Walter encounter with Marshall McLuhan defines a large part of his life.
McLuhan was a celebrated media personality who saw the emergence of television. He was a great thinker who related technology study to spiritual issues. Moreover, McLuhan was a mentor who explored phenomenon in modernist art and theology. Thus, he has greatly contributed to the emergence of modern media.
History of Hypertext and Networked Writing
The history of hyperlink can be traced back when, once Bush suggested the Memex, a machine that had, in parts, the capabilities of a computer, database, microfiche, as well as a system for information retrieval. This idea is what the origin of internet is based. It is worth to note the Internet is the backbone of Hypertext as well as networked writing.
The history of Hypertext also notes the Electronic Labyrinth which is a study of significance of hypertext to creativity. The idea of Electronic Labyrinth was documented in 1993 before it was adopted by the World Wide Web in 1995. Later was hosted by the University of Victoria from 1997 to 2002.
Precursors to Electronic Writing
Before the electronic age, writing was done manually. Authorship was only regarded as writing that relied on prints materials. However, it electronic writing has emerged, and is due to technology that it is possible. Now, electronic writing is more fulfilling with the ease in almost all the aspects such as distribution of the materials. However, electronic authorship is not without demerits as piracy is major concern to authors and every stakeholder of a piece of writing.
Knowledge and Representation
Flaubert was a great writer who knew how to present his ideas. His construction of paragraphs, use of words showed great artistry. However, his work has great differences to Joyce’s Ulysses, which has been a concern to some scholar.
The book is characterized by wording that makes the reader, especially, one who is not acquainted with the original language to have difficulties in interpretation. It is unlike the styles of Flaubert who preferred using a language that is clear and understandable. The translation of Ulysess can be very tasking and it might render the piece of writing ineffective especially due to the use of some words that have context meanings different from the real meaning of the words. Ulysses, a translation of Flaubert features assembly of single words which is not a suitable approach in writing.
Ulmer and Electracy
As Jane Yellowless Douglas notes, the enduring importance of the classical philosophers’ works rests mainly on their contribution in opening up fresh fields of thought. Moreover, she Douglas reveals that interpretation is a necessity of all time and that the concept one reading is illusory. Moreover, dialogue is a way of bringing insatiability into the reader and text relationship. Woolgar remarks that there is need to explore many forms of literary expression to bring flexibility in our heart.
These remarks are not naturally univocal or linear but the rhetoric of print has steered them into that direction. Moreover, it worth to note that it is important to have reflexivity in argumentation so as to have more sophisticated multivocal understanding reality of the world. Again, conventionally in the world of prints “it is infinitely easier to represent singularity and certainty, a single correct answer, the final verdict, than it is to do justice to a complex web of factors, influences, and forces so dense that no one can arrive at a single interpretation or, at least, stand by one with anything resembling certainty.”
New directions in networked writing – blogging
The theme of The Future of Digital Media Culture, a 2007 Digital Arts and Culture Conference, illustrates how discussions are inclined to novelty as the most significant aspect in modern digital art and electronic literature. Therefore, people fail to appreciate fresh creativities that is founded by the past ideas due to the fact that we are always thinking about the future’ we are myopic. People, moreover, have held novelty to that high regard that other ideological and aesthetic values have been neglected. The evidence is well seen in the media.
Thus, in this midst of global communication transformation changes in our daily life are eminent and it is to identify, recognize, and contemplate the elements in our cultures that are dynamic. In electronic literature, identification and analysis of media-specific elements of each and every work of individual is vital. However, in veering toward these horizons, it is of importance to place electronic literature in the context of both computing and digital culture as well as art and literary movements.
Halflives: An exposition on the creation of one hypertext
Any given writing environment influences a particular individual in certain ways. For instance, Adrian Miles, who is a teacher of interactive video and hypermedia, is credit with writing that is characteristic of aspects such as associative, branching, intensive, and rhizomatic, or rather it is characteristic of writing in hypertext. Hypertext features subsection nodes, individual nodes that are almost discrete with some redundancies.