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1000 plus NCLEX-style questions Rationales for correct and incorrect responses Alternate format questions Strategic tips for successfully answering questions All questions coded for— • • • • Client Need Content Area Cognitive Domain Difficulty Level All combined to promote success on NCLEX examinations Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. Minimum System Requirements PC CPU:Pentium III or higher 64 MB Ram; 128 MB Ram preferred 800 x 600 monitor with thousands of colors OS: Windows/2000/XP 8x CD-ROM drive 135 MB hard disk space LICENSE AGREEMENT 1.

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The fee code for users of the Transactional Reporting Service is: 8036–1570/07 0 $. 10. Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. Look for our other Davis’s Notes titles Available Now! RNotes®: Nurse’s Clinical Pocket Guide ISBN: 0-8036-1335-0 LPN Notes: Nurse’s Clinical Pocket Guide ISBN: 0-8036-1132-3 MedNotes: Nurse’s Pharmacology Pocket Guide ISBN: 0-8036-1109-9 MedSurg Notes: Nurse’s Clinical Pocket Guide ISBN: 0-8036-1115-3 NutriNotes: Nutrition & Diet Therapy Pocket Guide ISBN: 0-8036-1114-5 IV Therapy Notes: Nurse’s Clinical Pocket Guide ISBN: 0-8036-1288-5 PsychNotes: Clinical Pocket Guide

ISBN: 0-8036-1286-9 LabNotes: Pocket Guide to Lab & Diagnostic Tests ISBN: 0-8036-1265-6 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. Contacts • Phone/E-Mail Name: Ph: Name: Ph: Name: Ph: Name: Ph: Name: Ph: Name: Ph: Name: Ph: Name: Ph: Name: Ph: Name: Ph: Name: Ph: Name: Ph: Name: Ph: e-mail: e-mail: e-mail: e-mail: e-mail: e-mail: e-mail: e-mail: e-mail: e-mail: e-mail: e-mail: e-mail: Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 1 NCLEX-RN® ¦ The National Council Licensure Examination for registered nurses (NCLEX-RN®) measures the knowledge and abilities necessary for entrylevel nurses. It is administered by Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT), which individualizes tests to match the unique competencies of each test taker. ¦ Each exam adheres to the NCLEX-RN® Test Plan, which describes the content and scope of RN competencies. ¦ Practices basic to nursing (e. g. , nursing process, caring, teaching, learning, communication, documentation) are integrated throughout, and most questions require application and analysis of information. NCLEX-RN® Test Plan—Distribution of Content Patient Needs and % of Items Safe and Effective Care Environment ¦ Management of Care ¦ Safety/Infection

Control Health Promotion and Maintenance Psychosocial Integrity Physiological Integrity ¦ Basic Care/Comfort ¦ Pharmacological/Parenteral gfd Therapies ¦ Reduction of Risk Potential ¦ Physiological Adaptation 13%–19% 8%–14% 6%–12% 6%–12% 6%–12% 13%–19% 13%–19% 11%–17% Taking the NCLEX-RN® Test on a Computer ¦ First: You will receive general information about the exam and the testing center. Your time spent on this will not count. ¦ Second: You will take a tutorial on how to use the computer to answer the questions on NCLEX-RN®.

Your answers will not count toward your score, but the time you take will be subtracted from the total 6 hours you have for the exam. ¦ Third: You will then be presented with real NCLEX-RN® items; there will be between 75 and 265 items. The test ends when it is 95% certain your ability is ^ or v the passing standard. TIPS TIPS Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. ¦ Answers may be selected or deleted several times if desired before confirming a final answer. You must answer every question. You cannot return to a previous question. ¦ A time-remaining clock is in the screen’s upper right-hand corner. A calculator on the computer is available for calculations. Go to www. NCSBN. org to access an NCLEX tutorial to practice multiple choice and alternate format items on the computer. Critical Thinking Definition, Influences, and Uses of Critical Thinking ¦ Definition of critical thinking: Cognitive technique by which you reflect on and analyze your thoughts, actions, decisions ¦ Intellectual standards that influence critical thinking: Focused, methodical, clear, deliberate, logical, relevant, accurate, precise ¦ Processes that require critical hinking: Test taking, nursing process, problem solving, decision making, diagnostic reasoning Maximize Your Critical Thinking Abilities Action Be positive: Be optimistic ¦ Maintain positive mental attitude: Replace negative thoughts with positive ones Be calm: Control anxious feelings ¦ Use relaxation techniques: Practice breathing exercises and guided imagery Be inquisitive: Question and investigate ¦ Ask the questions how, why, what: e. g. , How does Colace promote a bowel movement? Why does BP drop with hemorrhage?

Be persistent: Follow a course of action ¦ Develop self-discipline: Be logical and organized ¦ ^Control over variables associated with thinking Benefit ¦ ^Positive thinking and vnegative thinking that can interfere with learning ¦ vAnxiety ¦ ^Control in relation to intellectual tasks ¦ ^Ability to determine significance of information ¦ ^Understanding/retention of information ¦ ^Ability to apply information 2 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 3 Maximize Your Critical Thinking Abilities (Continued) Action Benefit vProcrastination; ^enthusiasm ¦ Develop perseverance: Adhere ¦ ^Efficiency of time management to a preset study schedule; remain ¦ vStress of making purposeful determined daily study decisions: inspires ¦ Maintain motivation: Set short action and long-term goals; divide tasks ¦ ^Goal-directed behavior into steps; reward self Be creative: Be innovative and resourceful ¦ ^Openness to different ¦ Develop open-mindedness: perspectives; vegocentric Compartmentalize identified thinking; ^nonjudgmental beliefs, opinions, biases, thinking/practice stereotypes, prejudices ¦ ^Comprehension, synthesis, ¦ Develop comfort with ambiguity: interpretation, analysis of

Recognize that there is more than information: promotes practice 1 way to perform a task/achieve a based on principles; innovation goal ¦ ^Ability to synthesize, summarize, ¦ Develop independent thought: conceptualize: promotes practice Consider all possibilities and based on principles; ^innovation arrive at an autonomous conclusion ¦ Take risks: Implement unique interventions within the definition of nursing practice and safety guidelines Be reflective: Thoughtfully explore and assess ¦ Develop courage: Confront difficult ¦ Removes negative emotions from the task; ^positive thinking tasks (e. g. , reviewing mistakes) ¦ Allows an open mind to explore with a non-judgmental attitude and acquire information; permits ¦ Develop humility: Admit your nonjudgmental review of limitations—defensive thinking mistakes promotes negativity, which closes ¦ Identifies strengths, weaknesses, the mind and gaps in knowledge; ¦ Use retrospective reviews: Recall ^understanding of relationships information/event to rediscover/ between information and its explore its meaning; conduct application; vfuture mistakes internally or with others TIPS TIPS Copyright © 2007 by F. A.

Davis. General Study Skills ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ Set goals Take class notes Manage your time Control internal and external distractions Establish a routine Simulate a school environment Prepare for class Balance sacrifices and rewards Use Techniques Appropriate for Learning Domains Action Benefit Cognitive domain (thinking): Knowing, comprehending, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, evaluating ¦ ^Reception of information ¦ Use all your senses ¦ ^Retention of basic information ¦ Use memorization techniques ¦ ^Understanding ¦ Put information into own words ¦ Encourages correct use of ¦ Apply information in new information situations Affective domain feeling): Receiving, valuing, organizing, characterizing ¦ ^Sensitivity ¦ Observe role models ¦ ^Self-disclosure/growth ¦ Explore feelings, beliefs, values ¦ ^Consistency in actions; allows ¦ Integrate values into philosophy for self-actualization of life Psychomotor domain (doing): Imitating, articulating, naturalizing ¦ Observe others performing a skill ¦ Manipulate equipment while doing procedures ¦ Include speed/timing when practicing skills ¦ Practice skills repeatedly manipulating, developing precision, ¦ Identifies steps of a skill ¦ Transfers information from head to hands ¦ Promotes proficiency through repetition ¦ Perfects the skill; naturalization occurs when skill becomes automatic 4 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. Specific Study Skills How to Remember/Recall Information: Commit Facts to Memory Action Memorization: Repeatedly reciting out loud, reviewing in your mind, writing it down Benefit ¦ Repetition ^retention of information Example Lists on index cards: Steps of a procedure; signs of a specific electrolyte imbalance ¦ Flash cards: Drug classification on one side and action on reverse side; medical terminology on one side and definition on reverse side ¦ The 3 Ps: Cardinal signs of diabetes mellitus: ¦ Polyuria: Increased secretion/ excretion of urine ¦ Polydipsia: Excessive thirst ¦ Polyphagia: Eating excessive amounts of food ¦ RACE: Procedure for a fire in a health care facility ¦ Rescue people in immediate danger ¦ Activate the fire alarm ¦ Confine the fire ¦ Evacuate people to a safe area ¦ “There are 15 grains of sugar in 1 graham (gram) cracker. This sentence ” should help you remember that 15 grains are equivalent to 1 gram. Alphabet cues: Combination of significant letters 5 ¦ Each letter prompts recall of specific information Acronyms: Word formed from the first letters of a series of facts ¦ Each letter jolts retrieval of specific information TIPS Mnemonics: A phrase, motto, verse ¦ Prompts recall of specific information Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. How to Understand Information: Translate, Interpret, and Determine Implications of Information Action Explore how or why information is relevant and valuable Study in small groups Benefit Significant information is more likely remembered Example ¦ Elevation of an extremity reduces peripheral edema ¦ How: Hand held above elbow/shoulder ^venous return via gravity, which vedema ¦ Discussing differences between hyper- and hypoglycemia ¦ Debating the pros and cons of breastfeeding ¦ Identify more correct things the nurse should do in addition to the correct answer presented in a test question ¦ Sharing/listening ^understanding and corrects misinformation How to Manipulate Information: Apply, Solve, Modify, and Use Information Action Relate new information to prior learning Benefit ¦ Placing information within a personal frame of reference makes information more meaningful Example Pathophysiology of diabetes should build on normal physiology of the pancreas ¦ Placing a pt in a left side–lying position after a liver biopsy should build on the fact that pressure compresses blood vessels, which supports hemostasis preventing hemorrhage ¦ Actions that use the principle of gravity: Enema instillation, elevation of extremity to limit edema, high Fowler’s position to promote respirations Recognize commonalities TIPS ¦ Application of information to similar situations ^learning 6 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. How to Analyze Information: Examine the Organization, Structure, and Interrelationships of Information Action Recognize differences Benefit ¦ ^Ability to analyze and discriminate significance of information ¦ Reinforces learning, builds endurance,^test-taking and time-management skills, ^testing comfort ¦ Reinforces concepts and principles, ^new learning, strengthens critical thinking, corrects misinformation ¦ Identify commonalities and differences, ^opportunities for exploring content Example Variety of causes that can ^BP: Hypervolemia, rigid arterial walls, emotional stress ¦ Answer questions at the end of a chapter ¦ Take a simulated test in a NCLEX prep book ¦ Take a simulated NCLEX test on a computer ¦ Review why the correct answer is correct ¦ Review why the incorrect options are incorrect; look up additional information in textbooks ¦ Change a key word in a stem to change the focus: “Identify the pt adaptation associated with acute pain. ” Change the word acute to chronic and then identify if any options apply ¦ Identify number of questions answered correctly/incorrectly ¦ Group questions answered incorrectly by Knowledge Deficits and Information Processing Errors (see Tab 8) ¦ Identify Personal Performance Trends (see Tab 8) ¦ Design a plan for future test success Practice test taking Review rationales for all options 7 Modify test questions

Analyze your performance ¦ Analysis identifies areas of strength, gaps in knowledge, information-processing errors, effectiveness of educated guesses, plans for future study TIPS TIPS Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. Test-Taking and Study Tips See enclosed disk for 160 examples of questions demonstrating the 15 testtaking tips and alternate format questions. Identify positive polarity in a stem ¦ Correct answer is in accord with a truth, fact, principle, or action that should be done; it attempts to determine if you can understand, apply, or differentiate correct information. ? Study Tip: Review content being tested; identify additional things the nurse should do.

Identify negative polarity in a stem ¦ Correct answer reflects something that is false; the words except, not, contraindicated, unacceptable, least, avoid, violate, untrue, side effect, and exception indicate negative polarity. If 3 answers appear correct, you may have missed the negative word in the stem. ? Study Tip: Change negative word to a positive word and then answer the question. Identify words that set a priority ¦ Correct answer is what should be done first; the words initial, main, primary, initially, greatest, best, first, most, and priority require ranking of options from most to least desirable. If unable to identify correct answer, eliminate least desirable option and repeat again until left with a final option. ? Study Tip: After selecting correct answer, select what action should be done next.

Identify opposites in options ¦ When 2 options reflect extremes on a continuum, frequently 1 of them is the correct answer; opposites may be obvious or obscure. ? Study Tip: Examples of opposites: hypo- vs. hyper-; increase vs. decrease; brady- vs. tachy-; identify what is associated with the incorrect opposite (e. g. , tachycardia is associated with hyperthyroidism vs. bradycardia being associated with hypothyroidism). Identify key words in a stem ¦ Identify important word or phrase that modifies another word (e. g. , early vs. late sign of shock). ? Study Tip: Change key words in stem; this changes focus of question and ^opportunities for learning. 8 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 9

Identify patient-centered options ¦ Correct answers testing principles in the affective domain focus on feelings, choices, empowerment, and preferences. ? Study Tip: Examples of pt-centered options: Acknowledging: “Losing your independence must be difficult? ” Offering a choice: “Would you like your bath at 7 or 10 today? ” Empowering: Encourage pt to write down questions for the physician. Determining preferences: “What foods do you like to eat? ” Identify equally plausible options ¦ When 2 options are similar and 1 is not better than the other, generally both are incorrect. ? Study Tip: Identify other equally plausible facts related to either the 3 incorrect options or the correct answer.

Identify options with “absolute” terms ¦ The words all, just, none, only, never, every, and always have no exceptions; 1 of these before a statement that is true generally makes it an incorrect option. Options with absolute terms are more often incorrect. ? Study Tip: Examples of options to be eliminated: Always position an infant prone and just prescription drugs can cause interactions; exceptions include: Always maintaining an airway and focusing on the pt. Identify the global option ¦ A global option is a broad general statement, whereas the 3 other options are specific and inherently are included under the mantel of the global option. ? Study Tip: What else can be included under the global option?

Identify options that deny a patient’s feelings, needs, concerns ¦ Options that deny feelings, give false reassurance, focus on nurse, encourage cheerfulness, or change the subject cut off communication and should be eliminated. ? Study Tip: Examples of options to be eliminated: Denies feelings: “Don’t cry. It is not so bad. False reassurance: “You’ll feel better tomorrow. ” ” ” Focuses on the nurse: “The thought of dying would frighten me. Cheerfulness: “Cheer up. You are getting better. ” Identify the unique option ¦ When 3 options are similar in some way and 1 is different, the unique option often is the correct answer (e. g. , 3 options promote a bowel movement and correct answer causes diarrhea). TIPS TIPS Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. ? Study Tip: Identify additional similar or different examples of correct and incorrect options.

Identify clues in a stem ¦ A word(s) in the stem that is identical, similar, paraphrased, or closely related to a word(s) in an option is called a clang; a clang can be obvious or obscure. Generally, an option with a clang is the correct answer. ? Study Tip: Identify a similar word(s) that relates to an important word in the stem (e. g. , to the word movement in a stem consider similar words such as activity and mobility that may be found in an option). Identify duplicate facts in options ¦ If 2 or more facts are in each option and identical or similar facts are in at least 2 of the 4 options, and you can identify at least 1 fact that is correct or incorrect, you can eliminate at least 2 options. ? Study Tip: Identify additional facts that may be correct.

Use Maslow to identify correct option ¦ Answer the question in light of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs; basic physiologic needs are 1st-level needs that are a priority and are followed by needs associated with safety and security (2nd), love and belonging (3rd), self-esteem (4th), and self-actualization (5th). ? Study Tip: Identify an intervention associated with each level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs in relation to the question. Use multiple test-taking tips ¦ First analyze the stem for 1 or more test-taking tips. Then analyze the options for 1 or more test-taking tips. When you focus on what the stem is asking and eliminate options from consideration, you maximize the ability to select the correct answer. Study Tip: Practice answering questions at the end of a chapter or in test-taking books using the presented test-taking tips. Alternate Format Questions and Test-Taking Tips Alternate format questions evaluate certain knowledge more effectively than the typical multiple-choice question. They supplement multiple-choice questions, which remain the majority of questions. Any format, including the standard multiple-choice question, may include a chart, table, or graphic image. Alternate format questions are scored as either right or wrong, and partial credit is not given. 10 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 11 Ordered response (drag and drop) question ¦ Presents a scenario or makes a statement and then lists a variety of actions or factors that must be placed n sequence or in order of priority. The sequence chosen must be identical to the correct sequence to receive credit. ? Test-Taking Tip: Identify the action/factor you believe should be first. Identify the action/factor you believe should be last. Evaluate the remaining 2 actions/factors and make a final determination as to which one goes second. The remaining action/factor is placed third. Fill-in-the-blank (calculation) question ¦ Requires manipulation, interpretations, or solving a problem based on presented information. It requires an intellectual skill such as computing a drug dosage, calculating an I&O, or determining the amount of IV solution to be given.

The recorded answer must be identical to the correct answer to receive credit. You do not have to type in the unit of measurement. ? Test-Taking Tip: Before attempting to answer the question, recall information related to the question (e. g. , memorized equivalents, formulas); this taps your knowledge first and limits confusion. Multiple-response question ¦ Asks a question and then lists several responses. You must identify the 1 or more responses that are correct. All correct responses must be selected to receive credit. ? Test-Taking Tip: Before looking at presented options, quickly review information you know about the topic. This taps your knowledge first and limits confusion after looking at presented options.

Compare your list to presented options. Some of your recalled information should match. Then review the remaining presented options and determine if they are applicable. If you look at the presented options first, eliminate at least 1 or 2 you believe are wrong. Then identify at least 1 or 2 you believe are correct. Finally, evaluate the remaining options and make a determination if they are correct or not. Hot-spot question ¦ Asks a question in relation to a graphic image, picture, chart, or table. You must identify a location or analyze information on the illustration to answer the question. Your answer must mirror the correct answer exactly to receive credit. Test-Taking Tip: Read the question carefully to identify exactly what the question is asking. This limits misinterpretation and confusion. When questions reflect anatomy and physiology, close your eyes, visualize the area, briefly recall the significant structures and functions, and then look TIPS TIPS Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. at the picture. When questions involve graphs or tables, first break them into segments for analysis and then review them as a whole. Chart/exhibit question ¦ Presents a problem and then provides a chart/exhibit that has several tabs. Each tab has to be clicked to retrieve information contained within the tab.

The data must be analyzed and the significant information gleaned from the material presented to answer the question or eliminate incorrect options. These questions require the highest level of critical thinking (analysis and synthesis). ? Test-Taking Tip: First identify what the question is asking, then click each tab to collect data. Dissect, analyze, and compare and contrast the information collected in light of what the question is asking. Extensive information must be recalled from your body of knowledge and compared to the information in context of the situation presented in the question. 12 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)—Child and Infant

Maneuver Assess for response Activate 911 1 rescuer Airway breaths Child: 1year–adolescent Tap and ask, “Are you OK? ” Infant: 1yr No response to verbal or tactile stimuli Witnessed collapse with no response; unwitnessed event after 5 cycles of CPR Place on hard surface; head tilt-chin lift (lift-jaw thrust with spinal trauma); look, listen, feel for air; if not breathing, give 2 breaths; cover nose and mouth of infant when rescue breathing Brachial or femoral Carotid or femoral Center of chest below nipples Center of chest, between nipples 1 rescuer: 2 fingers 1 hand: Heel of 1 hand 2 rescuers: 2 thumb-encircling hands 2 hands: Heel of 1 hand and heel of second hand on top Rate:

Approximately 100/min Depth: Approximately 1/3 to 1/2 depth of chest 1 rescuer—30:2; 2 rescuers—15:2 Sudden collapse: ASAP No recommendation for infants 1yr All others: After 5 cycles of CPR Pulse with no breaths: 60/min: 12 to 20 breaths/min; 60/min: continue CPR Pulse check Compression landmarks Compression method: “Hard and fast” with chest recoil Compression rate and depth Comp/vent ratio Defibrillation Rescue breathing 13 BASICS BASICS Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. Ethical and Legal Foundations Basis of Ethical Decision Making ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ Autonomy: Support personal freedom and decision making Beneficence: Promote good Fidelity: Keep promises and commitments Justice: Treat people fairly and equally Nonmaleficence: Do no harm Paternalism: Make or allow a person to make a decision for another ¦ Respect: Acknowledge rights of others ¦ Veracity: Tell the truth Legal Terms Advance directive: Written document that addresses treatment desires in the future if unable to make decisions ¦ Living will: Specifically identifies treatment desires ¦ Health care proxy (durable power of attorney): Assigns decision making to another ¦ Do not resuscitate: Order stating that a patient should not be revived; at request of patient when able; health care proxy, family member, or legal guardian when patient is unable to give consent ¦ Assault: Threat of unlawful touching of another ¦ Battery: Unlawful touching of another without consent (e. g. , procedures performed without consent) ¦ False imprisonment: Restriction/retention of patient ithout consent; use restraints in compliance with policy and procedure; have patient sign release if desiring to leave facility against medical advice ¦ Good Samaritan Law: Legal protection for those who render care in an emergency without expectation of remuneration ¦ Libel: Written statement causing harm to patient 14 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 15 ¦ Malpractice: Professional negligence; occurs when the nurse owed a duty to the patient, the nurse did not carry out that duty, and it resulted in injury to the patient ¦ Negligence: Failing to perform an act that a reasonable prudent nurse would do under similar circumstances; may be an act of omission or commission.

Examples: Failure to ensure patient safety (falls); improper performance of a treatment (burns from warm soak); med errors; inappropriate use of equipment (excessive IVF via pump); and failure to monitor, report, or document patient’s status ¦ Organ donation: Donor card, living will, or family consent if patient is unable to participate in decision is necessary to donate organs ¦ Respondeat superior: Latin term meaning “let the master answer”; employer is responsible for acts of employee causing harm during employment activities ¦ Slander: Oral statement resulting in damage to patient; nurse incorrectly tells others that patient has AIDS and it affects patient’s business ¦ Uniform Determination of Death Act: ¦ Cardiopulmonary criteria: Irreversible cessation of circulatory and respiratory function ¦ Whole-brain criteria: Irreversible cessation of all functions of the entire brain and brain stem (organs may be healthy for donation even though meeting whole-brain criteria) Disease and Treatment Mnemonics CAUTION: EARLY SIGNS OF CANCER Change in bowel or bladder habits A sore throat that doesn’t heal Unusual bleeding or discharge Thickening or lump Indigestion; dysphagia Obvious change in a wart or mole Nagging cough ot hoarseness INFECT: S&S OF INFECTION Increased pulse, respirations, WBCs Nodes are enlarged Function is impaired Erythema, Edema, Exudate Complains of discomfort/pain Temperature – local or systemic RICE: TREATMENT FOR ACUTE INJURY Rest; vstress/strain on injury Ice; vasoconstriction vedema and pain Compression; external pressure Elevate: gravity vedema BASICS Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis.

Therapeutic Nurse-Patient Relationship Phases of Interaction Phase Preinteraction: Begins before contact with patient Orientation (introductory): Begins at first meeting of nurse/patient Working: Begins when patient identifies problems to be worked on Nurse Explore personal feelings, values, attitudes Collect data about patient Plan for 1st interaction Listen; be empathetic Identify boundaries of relationship (termination begins here) Clarify expectations Establish rapport Assist with exploration of issues Support healthy problem solving Assist with strategy development Identify own reactions to client based on own needs, conflicts, relationships (counter transference) Review objectives/goals achieved Reinforce adaptive behaviors Share feelings about termination Avoid discussing previous issues Encourage independence; focus on future Promote positive family interactions Refer to community resources Patient Patient has no role in this phase

Recognize need for help Commit to a therapeutic relationship Begin to test relationship Develop trust in nurse Examine personal issues Develop strategies to resolve issues May superimpose feelings from another relationship onto the nurse/patient relationship (transference) Share feelings about termination (anger, rejection, regression; negative feelings may be expressed to deal with loss) May attempt to discuss previous issues Assume responsibility for use of community resources Resolution (termination): Begins when problems are resolved; ends when relationship is terminated BASICS 16 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 17 Interviewing Interviewing Skills ¦ Active listening: Absorbs content/feelings; uses all senses; includes verbal/nonverbal attending, appropriate gestures (head nodding), eye contact, sitting, open posture, vocal cues (“mmm”). Clarification: Asks for more information. Checks accuracy. vAmbiguity: “I am not sure I know what you mean by that. ” ¦ Confrontation: Presents reality, identifies inconsistencies. ^Selfawareness. Use gently after trust is developed. Pt: “I never have any visitors. Nurse: “I was here yesterday when you had 3 ” visitors. ” ¦ Direct: Collects specific information quickly: “Where is your pain? ” ¦ Focusing: Let patient finish thoughts. Centers on key elements to vrambling. “When talking about your house, you mentioned scatter rugs. Let’s talk more about being safe in your home. ” ¦ Nonverbal: Promotes verbalization. Techniques include leaning forward, nodding head, smiling, gestures. Open-ended: Invites elaboration, nonthreatening. Avoids yes/no answer: “Tell me about what a typical day is like for you. ” ¦ Paraphrasing: Restates message in same/similar words. Focuses on content; encourages discussion. Pt: “I may not make it through the surgery. Nurse: “You think you are going to die? ” ” ¦ Reflection: Describes/interprets feelings/mood: “You sound upset. ” ¦ Silence: Allows for reflection, processing a response. Prompts talking. Useful when patient is sad/grieving or remaining quiet. ¦ Summarizing: Reviews key elements; brings closure. Clarifies expectations: “Today we talked about . . . ” ¦ Touch: Conveys caring, is reassuring.

May invade personal space; avoid with suspicious or angry patients. Hold patient’s hand, patting gently on patient’s shoulder. ¦ Validation: Confirms what the nurse heard or observed: “I understand that you just said . . . ” Barriers to Communication ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ Pain Failing to listen Overly optimistic statements (false reassurance) Advising Changing topic Judgmental or minimizing comments BASICS BASICS ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. Challenging, defensive, or disapproving responses Direct probing and “how” and “why” questions Interruptions, environmental noise, or extremes in temperature Trite, common expressions (cliches) Leadership Leadership and Management Terms ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ Accountability: Answerable for actions/judgments regarding care Autonomy: Nurse can make independent decision to decide/act Case management: Coordination of interdisciplinary care for pt Decentralized management: Staff participate in decision making Performance appraisal: Evaluation of a nurse’s compliance (quality & quantity) with standards and roles within job description ¦ Professional standards: Actions consistent with minimum safe professional conduct. Description of responsibilities. ANA, JCAHO, agency policy and procedure ¦ Quality improvement: Activities to ^achievement of ideal care ¦ Responsibility: Duties and activities that nurse is hired to perform Leadership Styles ¦ Autocratic: Complete control over decisions, goals, plan, and evaluation of utcomes; firm, insistent; often used in emergencies or when staff is inexperienced or new ¦ Democratic: Participative; shares responsibilities; uses role to motivate staff to achieve communal goals (shared governance), encourages intercommunication and contributions; used to help staff grow in abilities; ^motivation, ^staff satisfaction ¦ Laissez-faire: Nondirective; relinquishes control & direction to staff; best used with experienced, expert, mature staff who know roles Tasks That May Not Be Delegated to Unlicensed Nursing Personnel ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ Assessing, analyzing, and interpreting data Identifying nursing diagnoses Formulating a plan of care Evaluating pt responses to nursing care and extent of outcome achievement ¦ Screening and classifying pts to determine priority to receive intervention (triage) 18 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 19 ¦ Giving/monitoring parenteral medications ¦ Performing patient teaching ¦ Performing professional procedures (e. g. , sterile irrigations, insertion of urinary catheter, colostomy irrigation, tracheal suctioning) Leader and/or Manager Qualities

Effective leaders and managers need to: ¦ Understand human behavior Have insight into its relationship to beliefs, values, feelings; be sensitive to others’ feelings and problems ¦ Use effective communication skills Be clear, concise, avoid ambiguity; use appropriate format (verbal, written, formal, informal); be aware of own nonverbal behavior; support staff in growth of skills ¦ Use power appropriately Power attained through place in table of organization (positional); power attained through knowledge and experience or perceived by staff (professional); do not abuse ¦ Respond to staff needs Listen attentively, attend to needs, provide positive feedback, avoid favoritism, set realistic expectations, avoid mixed messages, and treat staff with respect: Counsel privately; keep promises; avoid threats, uperior attitude, criticism, or aggressive confrontation ¦ Delegate appropriately Right person (competent subordinate), right task (is within scope of practice), right situation (nursing assistant should not perform a routine task on an acutely ill patient), right communication (clear instructions, validate understanding of instructions), right supervision (monitor actions, evaluate outcomes, review with subordinate); leader retains accountability ¦ Provide opportunities for personal growth Aid less experienced nurse to ^knowledge, experience, responsibility (e. g. , mentor/preceptor, continuing education, staff education) ¦ Use critical thinking and problem solving Process requires effective communication, assessment, planning, and participation of staff and evaluation of outcomes ¦ Recognize conditions that are conducive to change Need is recognized by all staff and all have a stake in outcome; include all creatively in the process; focus on benefits; provide positive feedback; offer incentives ¦ Process follows problem-solving process BASICS BASICS Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. Change is planned and introduced gradually ¦ Change is initiated in a calm rather than chaotic atmosphere; best after a prior successful change ¦ Resistance is recognized and addressed; causes of resistance: change is threatening; lack of understanding; disagreeing with purpose/approach, beliefs, and values; ^in responsibility; habit; fear of failure Levels of Management ¦ First-level: Supervises nonmanagerial staff; oversees day-to-day activities of a group (e. g. , Team Leader, Charge Nurse) ¦ Middle-level: Supervises a group of first-level managers (e. g. , Supervisor, Coordinator, Head Nurse) ¦ Upper-level: Organizational executives; sets goals and strategic planning (e. g. , VP for Nursing, Associate Director of Nursing) Staff Nurse Role ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ Function as role model regarding professional conduct Receive report from nurse previously responsible for patient Make rounds on all pts immediately after receiving report Set priorities regarding pt needs: Immediate threat to survival (problems with breathing, VS, vLOC), requests for help (pain, toileting), urgent but not immediate needs (teaching) Coordinate and/or perform care for assigned pts; use time-management skills; complete all care assigned Delegate care to subordinates that is within their job description Monitor care delegated; establish clear expectations; encourage communication; evaluate patient outcomes related to delegated tasks (nurse retains accountability for delegated tasks) Give report to next nurse responsible for patient Engage in quality improvement (QI) activities Participate in intradepartmental and interdepartmental meetings Nurse Manager Role ¦ Function as a role model regarding professional conduct ¦ Set standards of performance; establish goals for the unit with the staff; mobilize staff and agency resources to attain goals ¦ Support mutual trust; treat staff with respect; counsel privately ¦ Empower staff: Support innovation, seek staff members’ opinions, promote professional environment and growth, reward growth ¦ Perform pt rounds with multidisciplinary team 20 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 21 Monitor nursing practice and achievement of standards ¦ Design and implement a quality improvement (QI) program for the unit; engage staff in QI activities ¦ Assist in staff development plan and orientation of new employees ¦ Schedule staffing for the unit ¦ Conduct regular staff meetings with all shifts ¦ Evaluate performance of subordinates (performance appraisal) ¦ Participate in intradepartmental and interdepartmental meetings Community Nursing ¦ Community health nursing (public health nursing): Nursing care for a specific population living in the same geographic area, or groups having similar values, interests, and needs. Aims to develop a healthy environment in which to live ¦ Public health functions: Community assessment, policy development, and facilitating access to resources. Cohesiveness is promoted by engaging community members in the problem-solving process and promoting empowerment through education, opportunities, and resources.

Successful public health programs are congruent with that of the interests and goals of the community ¦ Assessment of a community: ¦ Structure (milieu): Geographical area, environment, housing, economy, water, and sanitation ¦ Population: Age and sex distribution, density, growth trends, educational level, cultures and subcultures, religious groups ¦ Social systems: Education, communication, transportation, welfare, and health care delivery systems; government and volunteer agencies ¦ Community-based nursing: Nursing care delivered in the community while focused on a specific individual’s or family’s health care needs. The individual is viewed within the larger systems of family, community, culture, and society ¦ Vulnerable populations: People at risk for illness (e. g. homeless, living in poverty, migrant workers, living in rural communities, pregnant adolescents, suicidal individuals, frail older adults) ¦ Stigmatized groups: People viewed with disdain/disgrace (e. g. , pts with dx of HIV positive, substance abuse, mental illness) ¦ Settings in which nurses work: Homes, community health centers, clinics, industry, rehabilitation centers, schools, crisis intervention centers (phone lines), shelters, halfway houses, sheltered workshops, day care centers, forensic settings BASICS BASICS Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. ¦ Roles of nurses: Discharge planner, case manager, counselor, and epidemiologist, health promoter, case finder, caregiver, educator, esearcher, consultant, advocate, role model, change agent ¦ Hospice care: Palliative (relieve or vdiscomfort) and supportive care for dying persons and their caregivers. Experts in pain and symptom management. Focuses on preserving dignity and quality over quantity of life. Supports bereavement; usually during last 6mo of life ¦ Respite care: Temporary care for homebound so that caregivers have relief from day-to-day responsibilities Patient Education Learning Domains Cognitive domain: Thinking, acquiring, comprehending, synthesizing, evaluating, storing, and recalling information. ¦ Build on what pt knows. Present essential information first. Add information as pt asks questions. Teaching strategies: Lecture, discussion, audiovisuals, printed material, computer-assisted and Web-based instruction. ¦ Evaluation: Assess knowledge by verbal/written means. Affective domain: Addresses attitudes, feelings, beliefs, values. Takes time to internalize need-to-change behavior. ¦ Understand own value system. Respect uniqueness of each pt. Help pt explore feelings. ¦ Teaching strategies: Discussion, play, role modeling, panel discussion, groups, role-playing. ¦ Evaluation: Evidence of behavior incorporated into lifestyle. Psychomotor domain: Addresses physical/motor skills. Requires dexterity and coordination to manipulate equipment. Ultimately performs a task with skill. Achieve mastery of each step before moving on to next step. ¦ Teaching strategies: Audiovisuals, pictures, demonstrations, models. ¦ Evaluation: observation of performance of skill (return demonstration). Teaching and Learning—General Concepts ¦ Education can prevent illness, promote or restore health, vcomplications, ^independence and coping, ^individual and family growth. Incorporate throughout health care delivery. ¦ Environment should be conducive to learning: Private, quiet, well lit, comfortable, and lack distractions (close door/curtain, shut off TV). ¦ Teaching process should follow format of Nursing Process. 22 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 23 Both short- and long-term goals should be set to ^motivation and allow for evaluation. Goals must be pt centered, specific, measurable, realistic, and have a time frame. ¦ A variety of teaching strategies that use different senses should be used (written materials, videos, discussion, demonstration). ¦ Teaching can be formal/informal, individualized, or within a group ¦ Information should move from the simple to complex, from known to unknown, be appropriate for pt’s cognitive and developmental level. ¦ Shorter more frequent sessions most effective (15–30min) ¦ Learning is ^with repetition, consistency, practice. ¦ Evaluation and documentation are essential elements of teaching. Patient Factors That Influence Learning

Culture, religion, ethnicity, and language: Commonalities and differences exist between cultures and among people from within the same culture. ¦ Be culturally sensitive and nonjudgmental. ¦ Avoid assumptions, biases, and stereotypes. Seek help from multicultural team. ¦ Provide teaching in pt’s language. Use professional translator. Knowledge and experience: Can promote or deter learning. ¦ Identify what patient already knows. Build on this foundation. ¦ Explore concerns related to experiences. Correct misconceptions. Literacy: Years in school may not accurately reflect reading ability. ¦ Assess ability to read and comprehend material (confusion, nervousness, excuses may indicate vability to read). Use illustrations, models, videos/films, discussion. ¦ Provide privacy.

Developmental level: ¦ Children: The younger the child the shorter the attention span. May regress developmentally when ill. Imagination can ^fear and misconceptions. Toddlers and preschoolers are concrete thinkers; school-age children are capable of logical thinking. ¦ Nursing: Identify developmental age to determine appropriate strategies and tools (dolls, puppet play, role playing, drawing, games, and books). Use direct, simple approach. Also direct teaching to parents. ¦ Adolescents: Need to be similar to peers. Seeking autonomy. Focused on the present. ¦ Nursing: Be open and honest about the illness. Respect opinions and need to be like peers. Support need for control.

Learning must have immediate results. BASICS BASICS Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. ¦ Adults: Need to be self-sufficient and in control. ¦ Nursing: Assess for readiness. Learning most effective when selfdirected, built on prior knowledge and experience, and has a perceived benefit. ¦ Older adults: Needs are highly variable. Functional changes, stress, fatigue, and chronic illness can vlearning. Changes that may occur include slower cognition, slower reaction time, becoming overwhelmed with too much detail, and vability to recall new information. ¦ Nursing: Do not underestimate learning ability. vPace of teaching to allow more time to process information and make decisions.

Plan shorter, more frequent teaching sessions. Teach main points and avoid irrelevant details. Readiness to learn: Receptiveness to learning. ¦ Patient has to recognize the need to learn and be physically and emotionally able to participate. ¦ Depression, anxiety, anger, denial will interfere with readiness, motivation, and concentration. ¦ Pain, acute/chronic illness, O2 deprivation, fatigue, weakness, and sensory impairment can interfere with learning. ¦ Identify readiness (pt states misconceptions, asks questions, demonstrates health-seeking behaviors, is physically comfortable, and anxiety mild). ¦ Select teaching aids appropriate for pt’s sensory limitations. Postpone teaching until pt is able to focus on learning; address factors that interfere with learning. Motivation: Drive that causes action. Essential to learning. ¦ Personal desire to learn (intrinsic motivation, internal locus of control) such as feeling better after stopping smoking. ¦ Desire to learn because of an external reward (extrinsic motivation, external locus of control) such as ^salary. ¦ Be sincere and nonjudgmental, ensure material is meaningful, make contractual agreement, and set short-term goals to ensure success. ¦ Identify/praise progress (positive reinforcement), avoid criticism (negative reinforcement), allow for mistakes. ¦ Use interactive strategies; do not let anxiety level climb past mild. Assess for vmotivation (distraction, changing subject). 24 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 25 Basic Nursing Measures Body Mechanics ¦ Maintain functional alignment: ^Balance, movement, physiologic function; avoids stress on muscles, tendons, ligaments, bones, joints; avoid rotating or twisting body; use supportive devices. ¦ ^Balance by keeping wt within the center of gravity; avoid reaching. ¦ ^Stability by spreading feet apart to widen base of support. ¦ Use large muscles of legs for power; avoids back muscle strain. ¦ Flex knees and hold objects being lifted close to body; lowers center of gravity and keeps wt within base of support; ^stability; vstrain. Raise bed to working ht; working closely to object being lifted or moved keeps object within center of gravity. ¦ Use internal girdle to stabilize pelvis when lifting, pulling, stooping. ¦ Use body wt as a force for pushing/pulling; lean forward and backward or rock on feet; vstrain on back. ¦ Pull, push, roll, slide rather than lift; face direction of movement. Fall Prevention ¦ Assess for risk factors: History of falls, vsensory perception, weakness, vmobility, vLOC, ^anxiety, confusion, vmental capacity, meds (diuretics, opioids, antihypertensives). ¦ Orient to bed and room; teach use of ambulatory aids and call bell; answer call bell immediately. ¦ Keep bed in lowest position unless receiving care. Raise 3 of 4 side rails; raise 4 rails if it is patient’s preference or there is an order (4 raised rails are considered a restraint). ¦ Lock wheels on all equipment and ensure that equipment is intact. ¦ Keep call bell, bedside and overbed table, personal items in reach. ¦ Keep floor dry and free of electric cords/obstacles; use night light. ¦ Encourage use of grab bars, railings, rubber-soled shoes. ¦ Stay with patient in bathroom/shower (need MD order for shower). ¦ Teach fall-prevention techniques (e. g. , rise slowly). ¦ Use monitoring device to signal attempt to ambulate unassisted. BASICS BASICS Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. Fire Safety ¦ Stay calm; keep halls clear; do not use elevator; stay close to floor. ¦ Know location and use of alarms and extinguishers. Evacuate pts in immediate danger first and then ambulatory, those needing assistance, and finally bedbound pts. ¦ Class A fire: Wood, textiles, paper trash; water extinguisher. ¦ Class B fire: Oil, grease, paint, chemicals; dry powder and CO2 extinguisher; water will spread fire; touching horn of CO2 extinguisher can freeze tissue. ¦ Class C fire: Electrical wires, appliances, motors; dry powder and CO2 extinguisher. ¦ RACE: Rescue pts in danger; Activate alarm; Contain fire (close doors/windows); Extinguish fire if small; Evacuate horizontally and then vertically. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)—Adult Assess for response Activate 911—1 rescuer Airway—breaths Tap and ask, “Are you OK? Witnessed collapse with no response; unwitnessed event after 5 cycles of CPR Put on hard surface; head tilt-chin lift (liftjaw thrust with spinal trauma); look, listen, feel for air; if not breathing, give 2–1 second breaths Center of chest; lower half of sternum (not over xiphoid) Heel of 1 hand, heel of 2nd hand on top (“hard and fast” allowing for chest recoil) Rate: Approximately 100/min; Depth: 11/2 to 2 inches 30:2 Carotid Sudden collapse: As soon as possible All others: After 5 cycles of CPR Pulse 60/min with no breathing: 10 to 12 breaths/min; 1 breath every 3–5 sec Pulse 60/min with no breathing: Continue CPR Compression landmarks Compression method Compression rate and depth Compression/ventilation ratio Pulse check Defibrillation Rescue breathing 26 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. Foreign Body Airway Obstruction—Child and Infant

Child: 1year–adolescent Infant: 1yr Mild: Can cough and make sounds; Severe: cannot cough, make sounds, or speak; difficulty breathing; pallor; cyanosis Mild: Continue to monitor Mild: Continue to monitor Severe: Abdominal thrusts until object Severe: Deliver 5 back blows and 5 is expelled or victim unresponsive chest thrusts; repeat until object is expelled or victim unresponsive Head tilt-chin lift; inspect mouth; remove object if present in pharynx; implement CPR but always inspect for object in pharynx before attempting 2 rescue breaths and remove if present; continue CPR Assess for extent of obstruction Victim is conscious Victim becomes unresponsive 27 Foreign Body Airway Obstruction (FBAO)—Adult Assess for extent of obstruction Abdominal thrusts Victim becomes unresponsive Mild: Can cough and make sounds; Severe: cannot cough, make sounds, or speak; difficulty breathing; pallor; cyanosis.

Ask, “Are you choking? ” If victim nods yes, initiate abdominal thrusts Mild: Continue to monitor; Severe: Abdominal thrusts until object is expelled or victim becomes unresponsive Head tilt-chin lift; inspect mouth; remove object if present in pharynx; implement steps in CPR for adult but always inspect mouth for object in pharynx before each 2 rescue breaths BASICS Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. Pain Management FACES Pain Rating Scale Alternate coding 0 No hurt 0 0 No Pain 1 1 Hurts little bit 2 2 Mild Pain 3 2 3 4 Hurts Hurts Hurts little more even more whole lot 4 6 8 4 5 6 Moderate Pain 7 8 Severe Pain 5 Hurts worst 10 9 10 Unbearable Pain BASICS

Source: Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale. From Wong D. L. , Hockenberry-Eaton, M. , Willson D. , Winkelstein M. L. , Schwartz, P Wong’s Essentials of Pediatric Nursing, 6th ed. St. Louis, MO, 2001, p. 1301. Copyrighted by Mosby, Inc. . Reprinted by permission. 28 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 29 Pain Assessment Tool P: Provokes/point. What causes the pain? Point to the pain? Q: Quality. Is it dull, achy, sharp, stabbing, pressuring, deep, etc.? R: Radiation/relief. Does it radiate? What makes it better/worse? S: Severity/S&S. Rate pain on 1–10 scale. What S&S are associated with the pain (dizziness, diaphoresis, dyspnea, abnormal VS)? T: Time/onset. When did it start?

Is it constant or intermittent? How long does it last? Sudden or gradual onset? Frequency? Nursing Care ¦ Assess pain: Use tools/scales ¦ Provide comfort: Positioning, rest ¦ Validate pt’s pain: Accept that pain exists ¦ Relieve anxiety/fears: Answer questions, provide support ¦ Teach relaxation techniques: Rhythmic breathing, guided imagery ¦ Provide cutaneous stimulation: Backrub, heat and cold therapy ¦ Decrease irritating stimuli: Bright lights, noise, ^vroom temp ¦ Use distraction (for mild pain): Soft music; encourage TV/reading ¦ Provide pharmacologic relief: Administer meds as ordered ¦ Evaluate pt response: Document; modify plan Restraints—Nursing Care Physical or chemical intervention that vmovement ¦ Purpose: preventing falls, disrupting therapy, harming self/others ¦ Physical restraints: Devices used to vmovement (vest, mitt, wrist, elbow, belt, mummy) ¦ Chemical restraints: Meds to calm disruptive/combative behavior that may cause harm to self/others ¦ Nursing ¦ Document behavior requiring need and failure of less invasive measures to protect pt; secure daily order ¦ In emergency, notify MD and get order signed within 24hr ¦ Ensure functional alignment before applying ¦ Follow directions (correct size, snug but does not limit respirations or occlude circulation, apply vest with V opening in front, secure tails with slipknot to bed frame) ¦ Pad under wrist or mitt restraints ¦ Monitor respiratory and circulatory status routinely ¦ Every 1–2hr remove restraint, assess skin, and provide care, perform ROM BASICS BASICS Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. Visually Impaired Patient—Nursing Care ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ Knock on door, greet pt by name, identify self, and explain purpose Do not touch until after pt understands your name and purpose Approach in an unhurried manner and use clear, simple sentences Stay within the pt’s field of vision Orient to the room, location, and use of call bell Provide a predictable environment; remove all hazards vNoise and distraction in the environment; explain unusual noises Ensure glasses are clean, accessible, and protected when stored Inform of location of food on meal tray; use numbers on a clock Ambulate pt by walking slightly in front while pt holds your arm. Never try to push or guide from behind. Inform of doors, steps ¦ Make it clear to pt when the conversation is over or when leaving Hearing-Impaired Patient—Nursing Care Greet pt by name, identify yourself and your purpose, ensure quiet ¦ Use touch appropriately to alert pt that you are about to talk ¦ Face pt directly; avoid turning away from pt while you are speaking; to facilitate lip reading, do not cover mouth with your hand ¦ Talk in a normal tone at a moderate rate; speak clearly; articulate consonants carefully; do not overly articulate; do not yell ¦ Use gestures and facial expression to convey message ¦ Encourage use of hearing aid; facilitate repair of nonworking aids ¦ Remove hearing aid when showering or washing the hair ¦ Follow manufacturer’s directions to insert, remove, clean, and store aid Latex Allergy Type of Reaction

Local skin reaction: Direct skin-to-latex contact Excessive exposure can lead to systemic reaction Systemic: Direct skin-to-latex contact Contact with equipment exposed to latex S&S Nursing Actions Allergy wristband Not life-threatening Label chart Erythema, pruritus, Use latex-free equipment Popular, vesicular, (gloves, tape, dressings, scaling, or bleeding syringes, antiembolism lesions; stockings, tubing, Life-threatening tourniquets, stethoAngioedema scopes, electrode pads, Rhinitis or rhinorrhea, BP cuffs, any indwelling Conjunctivitis urinary catheters) Bronchospasm 30 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 31 Latex Allergy (Continued) Type of Reaction

Powder particles exposed to latex may be inhaled or absorbed via skin, mucous membranes, or blood S&S Anaphylactic responses Circulatory collapse Nursing Actions Notify pharmacy so meds and mixed solutions are latex-free Ensure procedure rooms are latex-free and patient is first case of day Neutropenic Precautions ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ For individuals with compromised immune system Use standard precautions, especially hand hygiene Caregivers and visitors should be free of communicable illnesses Private room if possible; keep room meticulously clean Teach to avoid sources of potential infection (crowds, confined spaces such as airplanes, raw fruits/vegetables, flowers/plants) Sterile Asepsis Check expiration date; ensure packages are dry, intact, and stain-free ¦ Discard opened sterile solutions older than 24hr; criteria for medicated/antiseptic solutions may differ ¦ Place cap on table with inner cap turned up; label with date, time, and initials; avoid touching bottle rim ¦ Place sterile equipment inside the outer 1 inch of sterile field ¦ Ensure that sterile objects touch only another sterile object ¦ Open sterile packages away from sterile field ¦ Keep sterile field in one’s line of vision ¦ Position solution closest to patient; keep field dry and free of moisture ¦ Don sterile gloves without contaminating sterile surfaces ¦ Keep sterile gloved hands and equipment above level of waist ¦ Avoid talking, coughing, sneezing around a sterile field ¦ Discard sterile objects that become contaminated or if doubtful BASICS BASICS Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. Standard Precautions: Tier 1 Perform hand hygiene before and after care and when soiled; most important way to prevent infection ¦ Use personal protective equipment (PPE) if touching, spilling, or splashing of blood or body fluids is likely; use gloves, gowns, mask, goggles, shields, aprons, head and foot protection ¦ Discard disposable items in fluid-impermeable bag and contaminated items in Biohazard Red Bag ¦ Do not recap used needles; dispose in sharps container ¦ Hold linen away from body; place in impermeable bag in a covered hamper; do not let hampers overflow ¦ Place lab specimens in a leak-proof transport bag without contaminating the outside; label with biohazard sticker and patient information ¦ Institute procedure for accidental exposure: Wash area, report to supervisor, receive emergency care, seek referral for follow-up ¦ Receive hepatitis B vaccine ¦ Assign patient to private room if hygiene practices are unacceptable ¦ Avoid eating, drinking, touching eyes, applying makeup in patient areas Transition-Based Precautions: Tier 2 AIRBORNE ¦ Used for microorganisms that spread through air (droplet nuclei 5 m [e. g. TB, measles, chicken pox]) ¦ Private room; negative air pressure room; door closed; high-efficiency disposable mask (replace when moist) or particulate respirator (e. g. , for TB); transport patient with mask, teach to dispose soiled tissues in fluidimpervious bag at bedside DROPLET ¦ Used for microorganisms spread by large-particle droplets (droplet nuclei 5 m, (e. g. , pneumonia [streptococcal, mycoplasmal, meningococcal], rubella, mumps, influenza, adenovirus) ¦ Private room if available or cohort pts, mask when within 3ft of pt, door open, mask for pt when transporting, teach to dispose soiled tissues in fluid-impervious bag at bedside CONTACT ¦ Used for organisms spread by direct or indirect contact; methicillinresistant S. ureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE), vancomycin intermediate-resistant S. aureus (VISA); enteric pathogens (e. g. , E. coli, C. difficile), herpes simplex, pediculosis, hepatitis A and E, varicella zoster, respiratory syncytial virus ¦ Private room or cohort pts; gowns, gloves over-gown cuffs; dedicate equipment 32 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 33 Nursing Care of Older Adults ( 65yr) Background DEMOGRAPHIC DATA ¦ 70% rate themselves as healthy. Majority live in the community; increasingly more live in assisted living facilities. 5% in nursing homes. PHYSICAL CHANGES ¦ Gradual vin physical abilities. Close vision impairment (presbyopia). Hearing especially for high-pitched sounds. vSubcutaneous tissue. vMuscle strength. Impaired balance and coordination. vImmune response. One or more chronic health problems. PSYCHOSOCIAL ISSUES ¦ Conflict is ego integrity vs. despair. Personality does not change but may become exaggerated. Adjusting to aging, vhealth, maintenance of quality of life, retirement, fixed income, death of spouse/friends, change in residence, own mortality. Reminiscing may become focused on bodily needs and comforts. Sexual expression (love, touching, sharing, intercourse) important and related to identity. COGNITIVE STATUS ¦ IQ does not v. Mental acuity slows (^time to learn, problem solve).

Long-term memory better than short-term memory. REACTION TO ILLNESS/HOSPITALIZATION ¦ Illness/recuperation longer. Secondary to vadaptive capacity. ^Feelings of inadequacy and mortality. May ^self-absorption, social isolation, frustration, anger, depression, especially if retirement goals are denied. Unfamiliar environment may cause confusion, anxiety. Chronic illness, pain, or impending death may cause dependence, hopelessness. May accept and prepare for death. ¦ Nursing: Understand commonalities of aging but approach each person as unique. Avoid stereotyping because it denies uniqueness, vaccess to care, and impacts negatively on individual.

Ensure access to health care and social services, especially in home. Critical illnesses deserve aggressive treatment if desired. BASICS BASICS Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. Common Problems Associated With Aging BOWEL AND BLADDER INCONTINENCE ¦ Not part of aging process. May be aggravated by vmuscle tone of anal and urinary sphincters and prostatic hypertrophy. ¦ Nursing: Ensure screening for UTI, bladder/prostate cancer. Assist with hygiene and skin care. Institute bowel or bladder retraining. ADVERSE DRUG EFFECTS ¦ Multiple health problems require ^prescriptions (polypharmacy) with vcoordination among MDs. vHepatic/renal function that results in accumulation, ^paradoxic effects. Nursing: ^Coordination of health care. Identify unnecessary or excessive doses of meds. Assess for adverse/toxic effects. FALLS/ACCIDENTS ¦ Secondary to sensory impairments (vision, hearing, touch), postural changes, vmuscle strength and endurance, orthostatic hypotension, neurologic and cardiovascular decline. ¦ Nursing: Assist with ambulation. Teach safety precautions (use grab bars, railings, and walker; rise slowly; keep feet apart for a wide base; give up driving when impairment jeopardizes safety). INFECTIONS ¦ Increased secondary to vimmune response. ¦ Nursing: Teach preventive measures (handwashing, avoiding crowds, smoking cessation.

Pneumococcal pneumonia vaccine, yearly flu vaccine. COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT ¦ Not part of aging process. Delirium is potentially reversible and is associated with acute illness. Dementia is a chronic, progressive, irreversible disorder. Sundowning syndrome is confusion after dark. ¦ Nursing: See TAB 5—Mental Health Nursing for nursing care. ALCOHOL ABUSE ¦ Secondary to depression, loneliness, lack of social support. ¦ Nursing: Explore effective coping strategies. Refer to AA. RISK OF SUICIDE ¦ Secondary to multiple losses (loved ones, health), lack of social support; 20% experience depression, feelings of hopelessness, and isolation. 34 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 35 Nursing: Assess for suicide risk. Provide reality orientation, validation therapy, reminiscence. Support body image. Encourage psychological counseling; obtain order for antidepressant; referral to social service agency. SEXUAL RESPONSIVENESS/ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION ¦ Sexual response takes longer; vestrogen and testosterone; chronic health problems; medications; unavailable partner; cognitive impairment. ¦ Nursing: Provide privacy/dignity and nonjudgmental attitude, ^verbalization of concerns, suggest lubricants, penile prostheses, meds to reduce erectile dysfunction. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS (STI) ¦ Need for sexual expression continues. Society recognition that sex is natural and acceptable even if single by choice or death of spouse. ¦ Nursing: Maintain nonjudgmental attitude; teach about STI prevention. LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH ¦ Heart disease, then cancer, stroke, lung disease, falls, diabetes, kidney and liver disease. Often have 1 or more chronic illnesses. ¦ Nursing: Focus on health promotion. Encourage smoking cessation, ^exercise, wt control, adequate nutrition. Provide screening programs to identify problems early and manage chronic conditions. Common Human Responses Vital Signs TEMPERATURE ¦ Afebrile: Oral: 97. 5–99. 5 F and rectal: 0. 5–1. 0 F^ than oral route ¦ Hyperthermia: 99. 5 F; hypothermia: 97. F PULSE ¦ Normal: 60–100bpm ¦ Tachycardia: 100bpm; bradycardia: 60bpm ¦ Thready: Weak, feeble; bounding: forceful, full ¦ Dysrhythmia: Irregular pattern ¦ Pulse deficit: Difference between radial and apical rate RESPIRATIONS ¦ Eupnea, normal: 12–20bpm ¦ Tachypnea: 20bpm; bradypnea: ¦ Apnea: Absence of breathing 12bpm BASICS BASICS Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. ¦ Hyperventilation: ^Rate and depth ¦ Kussmaul: Deep and rapid, associated with metabolic acidosis ¦ Cheyne-Stokes: Rhythmic waxing and waning from very deep to very shallow and temporary apnea ¦ Orthopnea: Upright position to breathe ¦ Dyspnea: Difficulty breathing BLOOD PRESSURE ¦ Normal: SBP 120 and DBP 80 ¦ Prehypertension: SBP 120–139 or DBP 80–89 ¦ Stage 1 hypertension: SBP 140–159 or DBP 90–99 ¦ Stage 2 hypertension: SBP ? 160 or DBP ? 100 Fever ^Temperature; low-grade fever 98. 6 F–101 F; high-grade fever 101 F

S&S: Fatigue, weakness, flushed, dry skin ETIOLOGY: Bacterial, viral, or fungal infection, DVT, med side effects, tumor NURSING ¦ Monitor VS and WBC; evaluate meds for possible drug-induced fever ¦ Obtain diagnostic tests (sputum, blood, or urine for C&S, chest x-ray) ¦ Perform focused assessments: vBreath sounds, crackles, rhonch; stiff neck; headache; photophobia; irritability; confusion; IV site, incisions and wounds for infection; legs for DVT (redness, warmth, swelling tenderness); urine for infection (burning on urination, cloudy, greenish/reddish color); GI S&S (diarrhea, N&V, abdominal discomfort) ¦ Encourage coughing and deep breathing; ^fluid intake ¦ Antipyretics, tepid bath, hypothermia blanket ¦ Change IV site if indicated Constipation ?2 stools a wk and/or hard dry feces (obstipation).

S&S: Distended abdomen, rectal pressure, back pain, straining at stool, anorexia, blood-streaked stools, vbowel sounds ETIOLOGY: Urge is ignored; vfluids, mobility, or fiber in diet; weak abdominal or pelvic floor muscles; med side effects (opioids, iron, MAO inhibitors); anal lesions; pregnancy; laxative or enema abuse; F&E imbalance; obstruction; child: stool-withholding behavior 36 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 37 NURSING ¦ Assess stools for frequency, amount, color, consistency ¦ ^Fluid intake, ^exercise and ^fiber in diet, binding foods (rice, bananas) ¦ Respond to urge; encourage sitting position and regular time each day ¦ ^Relaxation and privacy; give laxatives, cathartics, enemas as ordered Diarrhea Passage of fluid or unformed stool 3 a day

S&S: Frequent loose stool; abdominal pain, cramps, flatus, N and V, fatigue, ^bowel sounds, abdominal distention, anorexia; results in dehydration ETIOLOGY: Viral, bacterial, or parasitic gastroenteritis; contaminated food or water; spicy, greasy food; raw seafood; excessive roughage; lactose intolerance; AIDS; drug side effect; anxiety; inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease); ingestion of heavy metals (lead, mercury); malabsorption syndrome NURSING ¦ Assess stools for frequency, amount, color, consistency ¦ Assess S&S of dehydration; ^PO fluid intake ¦ Assess perianal skin breakdown and provide skin care ¦ Assess antibiotic, stool softeners, and opiate use ¦ Ask about recent foreign travel and dietary intake ¦ Obtain stool specimen (C&S, ova, and parasite) ¦ Administer antibiotics, antidiarrheals, IV F & E as ordered ¦ Contact precautions as indicated Hemorrhage Bleeding that compromises tissue/organ perfusion S&S: ^Pulse, ^respirations, vBP narrowing pulse pressure; excessive blood , loss; capillary refill 3sec; vperipheral pulses; cool, moist, pale, mottled, or cyanotic skin; thirst. Early CNS S&S: vLOC, anxiety, irritability, restlessness. Late CNS S&S: Confusion, lethargy, combativeness, coma ETIOLOGY: External: Surgical and traumatic wounds.

Internal: blunt trauma, cancer, ruptured aneurysm, GI perforation, thrombolytic therapy NURSING ¦ Apply direct pressure; reinforce dressing (removal may dislodge clot) ¦ Monitor VS, I&O; lab results ¦ Maintain airway; give O2 ¦ Ensure #18 gauge IV access; Give IVF blood or colloidal products , BASICS BASICS Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. Shock Acute circulatory collapse; vO2 to cells, tissues, and organs S&S: vBP; vurinary output; capillary refill 3sec; cool, pale, mottled, or cyanotic skin; change in mental status. Hypovolemic: vPeripheral pulses. Neurogenic: Tachycardia or bradycardia. Anaphylactic: Anxiety, throat tightness, stridor, tachypnea, diaphoresis, flushing, urticaria, coma.

Septic: Fever, tachycardia, tachypnea ETIOLOGY: Hypovolemic: Blood loss, dehydration; Neurogenic: Spinal cord injury, anesthesia; Anaphylactic: Exposure to antigen; Septic: Infection, endo/exotoxin release NURSING ¦ Emergency intervention: Establish airway; suction if needed; O2 via nonrebreather mask 10–15 L/min; supine position with legs elevated unless airway compromised, then low Fowler’s; ensure IV access with 18-gauge needle; prepare for code, intubation, central venous access, IVF emergency meds; transfer to ICU , ¦ Ongoing assessments: ECG, hemodynamic monitoring, LOC, orientation, VS, pulse oximetry (may be unreliable due to vperipheral perfusion), I&O, and skin for color, temp, turgor, moistness ¦ Specific to types—hypovolemic: Control bleeding if present, volume replacement with crystalloids, colloids, plasma expanders, and/or blood products; cardiogenic: vasopressors, cardiotonics, antidysrhythmics; anaphylactic: epinephrine, antihistamines, steroids; septic: volume replacement, antibiotics, vasopressors, antipyretics; neurogenic: ensure spinal stabilization, vasopressors Infection Entry and multiplication of a pathogen in tissue.

Can be local or systemic or can progress from local to systemic. Example: UTIs can spread to kidneys and blood stream (urosepsis). Infection is accompanied by the inflammatory response S&S: Local: Erythema, edema, tenderness, heat, vfunction; purulent exudate; positive culture. S&S also depend on tissue involved. Systemic: ^VS (T, P R, BP); chills; diaphoresis; malaise; ^WBCs; positive , culture; occasionally headache, muscle/joint pain, changes in mental status ETIOLOGY: Invasion of bacterial, viral, or fungal pathogen NURSING ¦ Assess VS, S&S of inflammation and infection ¦ Obtain C&S before 1st dose of antibiotic if infection is suspected 38 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 39 ¦ ¦ ¦ Avoid excess bed covers, change linen if diaphoretic Promote rest and immobilization Give O2, IVF ^po fluids, ^protein, Vit C, and wound care as ordered , Transmission based precautions as indicated Inflammatory Response Local defensive vascular response to injury, infection, or allergen to protect and repair tissue; inflammatory response occurs with an infection SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS: Histamine, prostaglandin, bradykinin, and serotonin ^vascular permeability, causing fluids, protein, and cells to move into interstitial tissue. This causes local edema, heat, redness. Histamine irritates and edema places pressure on nerve endings > pain. Edema and pain contribute vfunction.

Exudate may be clear, plasmalike (serous), pink with RBCs, (sanguineous), or yellowish-green with WBCs and bacteria (purulent). Purulent exudate indicates infection ETIOLOGY: Local trauma, local infection NURSING ¦ Assess for S&S of inflammation and wound characteristics ¦ Provide wound care as ordered ¦ Elevate area if possible to vedema. Immobilize area to vpain ¦ Give antipyretics, anti-inflammatories, antibiotics as ordered ¦ Apply ice (at time of injury to ^vasoconstriction, which vpain/edema) or heat (after 24–48hr to ^circulation and remove debris and localize inflammatory agents) if ordered Nausea and Vomiting Unpleasant wavelike sensation in throat and epigastrium (nausea).

Ejection of GI contents through mouth (vomiting, emesis), which carries a risk of aspiration > atelectasis, pneumonia, asphyxiation S&S: Nausea, vomiting, ^vpulse, pallor, diaphoresis, bowel sounds^ or high pitched, abdominal pain, S&S of F&E imbalance (e. g. , hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis) ETIOLOGY: Gastroenteritis, motion sickness, infection, pain, stress, med side effect, pregnancy, appendicitis, bowel obstruction, neurological causes (head trauma, vascular headache), ^ICP NURSING ¦ Maintain airway ¦ ^HOB or place in side-lying position; keep NPO ¦ Assess emesis characteristics and note if vomiting is projectile BASICS BASICS ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ Copyright © 2007 by F. A.

Davis. Assess hydration status, I&O, electrolytes, daily weight Assess abdomen for distention and tenderness Attempt to determine cause Notify MD and obtain orders for alternate route for meds Orthostatic Hypotension vBP when rising from lying down to sitting or sitting to standing secondary to peripheral vasodilation without a compensatory ^cardiac output. Also called postural hypotension. S&S: Lightheadedness, vertigo, weakness; cool, pale, diaphoretic skin ETIOLOGY: Older age, immobility, hypovolemia, anemia, dysrhythmias, med side effect (opioids, antihypertensives, diuretics) NURSING ¦ Assess for ^pulse and vBP when changing position ¦ Rise lowly, “dangle” before standing, resume prior position if dizzy ¦ Assist to bed, chair, or floor if falling; if vBP continues—assess for vLOC, neurologic status, cardiac status, S&S of dehydration 40 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 41 Prenatal Period: Fertilization to Start of Labor Signs of Pregnancy ¦ Presumptive signs: Absence of menses (amenorrhea); 1st awareness of fetal movement (quickening) by 16–20wk ¦ Probable signs: Softening of cervix (Goodell’s sign); bluish-purple mucous membranes of cervix, vagina, and vulva (Chadwick’s sign); softening of lower-uterine segment (Hegar’s sign); floating fetus rebounds against examiner’s fingers (ballottement) ¦ Positive signs: Fetal heart sounds; fetal movement; ultrasound of fetus Prenatal Physiological Progression Ovum expelled from graafian follicle (ovulation); then sperm unites with ovum (fertilization) in fallopian tube within 24hr ¦ Fertilized ovum attaches to uterine endometrium (implantation) ¦ Conceptus called embryo (first 8wk), then fetus ¦ Trimesters: 1st (0–15wk); 2nd (16–27wk); 3rd (28–37/40wk) ¦ Nagele’s Rule: Expected date of birth (EDB); add 7 days to 1st day of last menstruation, subtract 3mo, add 1yr ¦ Cells differentiate wk 3–8 (organogenesis); negative influences (drugs, illness) may cause defects in embryo (teratogens) ¦ Fetal heart audible with Doptone after 12wk ¦ Fetal lungs produce pulmonary surfactants at 24–28wk ¦ Deposits of brown fat begin at 28wk; most ^wt in 3rd trimester ¦ S&S of impending labor: ¦ Fetal presenting part descends into true pelvis (lightening) ¦ Cervix thins/shortens (effacement); external os opens (dilation) ¦ Mild, irregular uterine contractions (preparatory contractions, formerly Braxton Hicks) ¦ Energy spurt (nesting), usually 24–48hr before labor ¦ Expulsion of mucous plug, usually 24–48hr before labor Prenatal Maternal Changes ENDOCRINE CHANGES ¦ Placenta secretes human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG); used for pregnancy screening; has role in AM nausea ¦ Progesterone and estrogen from corpus luteum in 1st trimester; from placenta in 2nd and 3rd trimesters ¦ Thyroid, parathyroids, and pancreas ^secretions; need for ^insulin ¦ Estro levels ^; excess in maternal saliva may indicate preterm labor CHILDBEARING CHILDBEARING Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. Labor initiated by posterior pituitary oxytocin, vprogesterone, ^estrogen, ^prostaglandins ¦ Nursing: Obtain specimens for screening tests CIRCULATORY CHANGES ¦ Cardiac output ^30–50%; blood volume ^50%, and RBCs ^30% (physiological anemia); vHct; WBCs ^ to 12,000mm3 ¦ Palpitations in 1st trimester are secondary to SNS stimulation and in 3rd trimester are secondary to ^thoracic pressure ¦ HR ^10–15 beats/min and BP drops in latter half of pregnancy; HR may ^40% with multiple fetuses ¦ Supine hypotension syndrome (vena cava syndrome): weight of uterus on vena cava vvenous return to heart and vplacental blood flow; signs and symptoms include vBP lightheadedness, and palpitations , ¦ Fibrinogen and other clotting factors ^ ¦ Varicose veins of legs, vulva, perianal area (hemorrhoids) due to pressure of uterus on pelvic blood vessels ¦ Edema of extremities last 6wk secondary to circulatory stasis ¦ Nursing: ¦ Teach patient to ^fluids, change positions slowly, elevate legs, wear antiembolism stockings, and avoid prolonged sitting. For thrombophlebitis: maintain bedrest, anticoagulant as ordered RESPIRATORY CHANGES ¦ O2 consumption ^15% by 16–40wk ¦ Nasal congestion and epistaxis 2o^estrogen levels ¦ Dyspnea 2o enlarged uterus pressing against diaphragm; subsides when lightening occurs around 38wk ¦ Nursing: ¦ Teach to balance rest/activity; avoid large meals ¦ Suggest to blow nose gently and use saline nasal spray REPRODUCTIVE CHANGES ¦ Amenorrhea; leukorrhea ¦ ^Vaginal acidity protects against bacterial invasion ¦ Cervical/uterine changes: Goodell’s, Chadwick’s, and Hegar’s signs ¦ Uterus in pelvic cavity at 12–14wk and then in abdominal cavity; to umbilicus at 22–24wk and almost xiphoid process at term ¦ Breast changes: Fullness, tingling, soreness, darkening of areolae and nipples, nipples more erect, veins more prominent, reddish stretch marks; Montgomery’s follicles enlarge ¦ Nursing: ¦ Assess fundal height ¦ Suggest side-lying, vaginal rear entry for intercourse ¦ Tell patient not to douche and to use a supportive brassiere and cotton underpants 42 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 43

GASTROINTESTINAL ¦ Nausea without vomiting (morning sickness) and ^salivation secondary to hormonal changes ¦ Food cravings; eating substances not normally edible (pica) ¦ Heartburn and gastric reflux secondary to delayed emptying of stomach and pressure of uterus ¦ Flatulence secondary to vGI motility, air swallowing ¦ Constipation secondary to vperistalsis, pressure of uterus, hemorrhoids ¦ Nursing: ¦ Teach to avoid gastric irritants, gas-forming foods, and antacids containing Na ¦ Remain upright 1hr after meals ¦ Small, frequent meals; dry crackers before arising ¦ ^Fiber, fluid, and walking ¦ For hemorrhoids: Avoid straining at stool and prolonged sitting, warm sitz baths or ice packs, anesthetic ointments URINARY ¦ Urinary frequency in early and late pregnancy secondary to enlarging uterus ¦ Bladder capacity ^ to 1500mL secondary to vbladder tone; may lead to stasis and infection ¦ vRenal threshold may cause glycosuria and mild proteinuria ¦ Nursing: ¦ Teach to void q2h and on urge to prevent stasis ¦ Assess for glycosuria secondary to DM and proteinuria 2o preeclampsia INTEGUMENTARY ¦ Blotchy, brownish skin over cheeks, nose, and forehead (melasma, chloasma); pigmented line from symphysis pubis to top of fundus in midline (linea nigra) ¦ Stretch marks over abdomen, thighs, breasts (striae gravidarum) secondary to adrenocorticosteroids during 2nd half of pregnancy ¦ ^Perspiration, oily skin, hirsutism, and acne vulgaris ¦ Nursing: ¦ Teach that changes are common and generally subside after birth ¦ Striae slowly lighten MUSCULOSKELETAL ¦ Softening of all ligaments and joints, particularly symphysis pubis and sacroiliac joints; backache 2o lordosis, and changes in center of gravity; leg cramps 2 hypocalcemia and pressure of uterus on pelvic nerves ¦ Nursing: ¦ Encourage intake of ^calcium foods and perinatal vitamin ¦ Teach body mechanics, avoid high-heeled shoes and lifting CHILDBEARING CHILDBEARING Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis.

NUTRITIONAL NEEDS ¦ 25–35lb gain: 2–5lb 1st trimester; 3/4lb per wk 2nd–3rd trimesters ¦ Calories: ^300cal/day to total of 2500cal/day ¦ Protein: 60 grams/day, an increase of 14 grams/day above prepregnant level ¦ CHO: Adequate to meet requirements; complex CHO preferred ¦ Fats: 30% of daily caloric intake; 10% should be saturated ¦ RDA vitamins and minerals attained in balanced diet and perinatal vitamin containing 400mcg folic acid; sodium is never completely restricted, avoid excess ¦ Nursing: ¦ Teach patient to have a well-balanced diet, avoid dieting ¦ Teach patient to take a multivitamin with 400mcg folic acid daily before conception and during pregnancy to prevent neural tube defects Prenatal Health Promotion Travel: Lap belt under abdomen and shoulder belt between breasts; stand/walk briefly q1h; airlines may restrict travel close to EDB ¦ Smoking: Avoid to prevent spontaneous abortion, vbirth wt, apnea in newborn ¦ Employment: Avoid excessive standing or work that causes severe physical strain/fatigue ¦ Alcohol: Avoid to prevent preterm birth, vbirth wt, fetal alcohol effects (FAE), or fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) ¦ Illicit drugs: Avoid to prevent teratogenic effect, vbirth wt, small for gestational age (SGA), fetal addiction, and dependency ¦ Caffeine: ^Risk of spontaneous abortion and intrauterine growth restriction; FDA recommends ? 2–3 servings (200–300mg) daily ¦ Artificial sweeteners: Studies are inconclusive but moderation is recommended; mothers with PKU should avoid aspartame Tests Performed During Pregnancy HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN (HCG) ¦ Tests for pregnancy ¦ hCG is produced by cells covering the chorionic villi of placenta ¦ Detectable 8 days after conception ¦ vOr slowly elevating levels: Threatened abortion, ectopic pregnancy ¦ ^Levels: May indicate ectopic pregnancy, hydatidiform mole, Down syndrome 44 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 45

MATERNAL SERUM ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN (MS-AFP) SCREENING ¦ Fetal protein used to screen for neural tube defects ¦ Ranges identified for each wk of gestation ¦ Peak concentrations at end of 1st trimester ¦ 16–18wk optimum time for testing ¦ ^Levels: Risk of open neural tube defect ¦ vLevels: Risk of Down syndrome ¦ When vlevels persist, ultrasonography for structural anomalies and amniocentesis for chromosomal analysis are done CHORIONIC VILLUS SAMPLING ¦ Reflects fetal chromosomes, DNA, and enzymology ¦ Placental tissue aspirated at 10–12wk ¦ Earlier testing time than amniocentesis permits earlier decision regarding termination ¦ Also vrisk of 1st trimester spontaneous abortion and costs less than amniocentesis ¦ Complications: Infection, preterm labor ¦ Nursing: Obtain consent. Full bladder to serve as acoustic window. Assess VS and absence of uterine cramping. Provide emotional support. Teach spotting for 3 days is expected after transcervical route.

Report flulike symptoms and vaginal discharge of blood, clots, tissue, or amniotic fluid; avoid sexual activity, lifting, or strenuous activity until spotting resolves. Ensure genetic counseling if appropriate BIOPHYSICAL PROFILE ¦ Level II ultrasonography assesses FHR reactivity, fetal breathing movements and tone, amniotic fluid volume, gross body movement ¦ Fetus status reflected numerically like Apgar score ¦ Reflects CNS integrity; indicator of fetal crisis and demise ¦ Done in response to nonreassuring NST and signs and symptoms of fetal compromise ¦ Nursing: Same as ultrasonography; emotional support PERCUTANEOUS UMBILICAL BLOOD SAMPLINGS

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The fee code for users of the Transactional Reporting Service is: 8036–1570/07 0 $. 10. Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. Look for our other Davis’s Notes titles Available Now! RNotes®: Nurse’s Clinical Pocket Guide ISBN: 0-8036-1335-0 LPN Notes: Nurse’s Clinical Pocket Guide ISBN: 0-8036-1132-3 MedNotes: Nurse’s Pharmacology Pocket Guide ISBN: 0-8036-1109-9 MedSurg Notes: Nurse’s Clinical Pocket Guide ISBN: 0-8036-1115-3 NutriNotes: Nutrition & Diet Therapy Pocket Guide ISBN: 0-8036-1114-5 IV Therapy Notes: Nurse’s Clinical Pocket Guide ISBN: 0-8036-1288-5 PsychNotes: Clinical Pocket Guide

ISBN: 0-8036-1286-9 LabNotes: Pocket Guide to Lab & Diagnostic Tests ISBN: 0-8036-1265-6 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. Contacts • Phone/E-Mail Name: Ph: Name: Ph: Name: Ph: Name: Ph: Name: Ph: Name: Ph: Name: Ph: Name: Ph: Name: Ph: Name: Ph: Name: Ph: Name: Ph: Name: Ph: e-mail: e-mail: e-mail: e-mail: e-mail: e-mail: e-mail: e-mail: e-mail: e-mail: e-mail: e-mail: e-mail: Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 1 NCLEX-RN® ¦ The National Council Licensure Examination for registered nurses (NCLEX-RN®) measures the knowledge and abilities necessary for entrylevel nurses. It is administered by Computer Adaptive Testing (CAT), which individualizes tests to match the unique competencies of each test taker. ¦ Each exam adheres to the NCLEX-RN® Test Plan, which describes the content and scope of RN competencies. ¦ Practices basic to nursing (e. g. , nursing process, caring, teaching, learning, communication, documentation) are integrated throughout, and most questions require application and analysis of information. NCLEX-RN® Test Plan—Distribution of Content Patient Needs and % of Items Safe and Effective Care Environment ¦ Management of Care ¦ Safety/Infection

Control Health Promotion and Maintenance Psychosocial Integrity Physiological Integrity ¦ Basic Care/Comfort ¦ Pharmacological/Parenteral gfd Therapies ¦ Reduction of Risk Potential ¦ Physiological Adaptation 13%–19% 8%–14% 6%–12% 6%–12% 6%–12% 13%–19% 13%–19% 11%–17% Taking the NCLEX-RN® Test on a Computer ¦ First: You will receive general information about the exam and the testing center. Your time spent on this will not count. ¦ Second: You will take a tutorial on how to use the computer to answer the questions on NCLEX-RN®.

Your answers will not count toward your score, but the time you take will be subtracted from the total 6 hours you have for the exam. ¦ Third: You will then be presented with real NCLEX-RN® items; there will be between 75 and 265 items. The test ends when it is 95% certain your ability is ^ or v the passing standard. TIPS TIPS Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. ¦ Answers may be selected or deleted several times if desired before confirming a final answer. You must answer every question. You cannot return to a previous question. ¦ A time-remaining clock is in the screen’s upper right-hand corner. A calculator on the computer is available for calculations. Go to www. NCSBN. org to access an NCLEX tutorial to practice multiple choice and alternate format items on the computer. Critical Thinking Definition, Influences, and Uses of Critical Thinking ¦ Definition of critical thinking: Cognitive technique by which you reflect on and analyze your thoughts, actions, decisions ¦ Intellectual standards that influence critical thinking: Focused, methodical, clear, deliberate, logical, relevant, accurate, precise ¦ Processes that require critical hinking: Test taking, nursing process, problem solving, decision making, diagnostic reasoning Maximize Your Critical Thinking Abilities Action Be positive: Be optimistic ¦ Maintain positive mental attitude: Replace negative thoughts with positive ones Be calm: Control anxious feelings ¦ Use relaxation techniques: Practice breathing exercises and guided imagery Be inquisitive: Question and investigate ¦ Ask the questions how, why, what: e. g. , How does Colace promote a bowel movement? Why does BP drop with hemorrhage?

Be persistent: Follow a course of action ¦ Develop self-discipline: Be logical and organized ¦ ^Control over variables associated with thinking Benefit ¦ ^Positive thinking and vnegative thinking that can interfere with learning ¦ vAnxiety ¦ ^Control in relation to intellectual tasks ¦ ^Ability to determine significance of information ¦ ^Understanding/retention of information ¦ ^Ability to apply information 2 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 3 Maximize Your Critical Thinking Abilities (Continued) Action Benefit vProcrastination; ^enthusiasm ¦ Develop perseverance: Adhere ¦ ^Efficiency of time management to a preset study schedule; remain ¦ vStress of making purposeful determined daily study decisions: inspires ¦ Maintain motivation: Set short action and long-term goals; divide tasks ¦ ^Goal-directed behavior into steps; reward self Be creative: Be innovative and resourceful ¦ ^Openness to different ¦ Develop open-mindedness: perspectives; vegocentric Compartmentalize identified thinking; ^nonjudgmental beliefs, opinions, biases, thinking/practice stereotypes, prejudices ¦ ^Comprehension, synthesis, ¦ Develop comfort with ambiguity: interpretation, analysis of

Recognize that there is more than information: promotes practice 1 way to perform a task/achieve a based on principles; innovation goal ¦ ^Ability to synthesize, summarize, ¦ Develop independent thought: conceptualize: promotes practice Consider all possibilities and based on principles; ^innovation arrive at an autonomous conclusion ¦ Take risks: Implement unique interventions within the definition of nursing practice and safety guidelines Be reflective: Thoughtfully explore and assess ¦ Develop courage: Confront difficult ¦ Removes negative emotions from the task; ^positive thinking tasks (e. g. , reviewing mistakes) ¦ Allows an open mind to explore with a non-judgmental attitude and acquire information; permits ¦ Develop humility: Admit your nonjudgmental review of limitations—defensive thinking mistakes promotes negativity, which closes ¦ Identifies strengths, weaknesses, the mind and gaps in knowledge; ¦ Use retrospective reviews: Recall ^understanding of relationships information/event to rediscover/ between information and its explore its meaning; conduct application; vfuture mistakes internally or with others TIPS TIPS Copyright © 2007 by F. A.

Davis. General Study Skills ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ Set goals Take class notes Manage your time Control internal and external distractions Establish a routine Simulate a school environment Prepare for class Balance sacrifices and rewards Use Techniques Appropriate for Learning Domains Action Benefit Cognitive domain (thinking): Knowing, comprehending, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, evaluating ¦ ^Reception of information ¦ Use all your senses ¦ ^Retention of basic information ¦ Use memorization techniques ¦ ^Understanding ¦ Put information into own words ¦ Encourages correct use of ¦ Apply information in new information situations Affective domain feeling): Receiving, valuing, organizing, characterizing ¦ ^Sensitivity ¦ Observe role models ¦ ^Self-disclosure/growth ¦ Explore feelings, beliefs, values ¦ ^Consistency in actions; allows ¦ Integrate values into philosophy for self-actualization of life Psychomotor domain (doing): Imitating, articulating, naturalizing ¦ Observe others performing a skill ¦ Manipulate equipment while doing procedures ¦ Include speed/timing when practicing skills ¦ Practice skills repeatedly manipulating, developing precision, ¦ Identifies steps of a skill ¦ Transfers information from head to hands ¦ Promotes proficiency through repetition ¦ Perfects the skill; naturalization occurs when skill becomes automatic 4 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. Specific Study Skills How to Remember/Recall Information: Commit Facts to Memory Action Memorization: Repeatedly reciting out loud, reviewing in your mind, writing it down Benefit ¦ Repetition ^retention of information Example Lists on index cards: Steps of a procedure; signs of a specific electrolyte imbalance ¦ Flash cards: Drug classification on one side and action on reverse side; medical terminology on one side and definition on reverse side ¦ The 3 Ps: Cardinal signs of diabetes mellitus: ¦ Polyuria: Increased secretion/ excretion of urine ¦ Polydipsia: Excessive thirst ¦ Polyphagia: Eating excessive amounts of food ¦ RACE: Procedure for a fire in a health care facility ¦ Rescue people in immediate danger ¦ Activate the fire alarm ¦ Confine the fire ¦ Evacuate people to a safe area ¦ “There are 15 grains of sugar in 1 graham (gram) cracker. This sentence ” should help you remember that 15 grains are equivalent to 1 gram. Alphabet cues: Combination of significant letters 5 ¦ Each letter prompts recall of specific information Acronyms: Word formed from the first letters of a series of facts ¦ Each letter jolts retrieval of specific information TIPS Mnemonics: A phrase, motto, verse ¦ Prompts recall of specific information Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. How to Understand Information: Translate, Interpret, and Determine Implications of Information Action Explore how or why information is relevant and valuable Study in small groups Benefit Significant information is more likely remembered Example ¦ Elevation of an extremity reduces peripheral edema ¦ How: Hand held above elbow/shoulder ^venous return via gravity, which vedema ¦ Discussing differences between hyper- and hypoglycemia ¦ Debating the pros and cons of breastfeeding ¦ Identify more correct things the nurse should do in addition to the correct answer presented in a test question ¦ Sharing/listening ^understanding and corrects misinformation How to Manipulate Information: Apply, Solve, Modify, and Use Information Action Relate new information to prior learning Benefit ¦ Placing information within a personal frame of reference makes information more meaningful Example Pathophysiology of diabetes should build on normal physiology of the pancreas ¦ Placing a pt in a left side–lying position after a liver biopsy should build on the fact that pressure compresses blood vessels, which supports hemostasis preventing hemorrhage ¦ Actions that use the principle of gravity: Enema instillation, elevation of extremity to limit edema, high Fowler’s position to promote respirations Recognize commonalities TIPS ¦ Application of information to similar situations ^learning 6 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. How to Analyze Information: Examine the Organization, Structure, and Interrelationships of Information Action Recognize differences Benefit ¦ ^Ability to analyze and discriminate significance of information ¦ Reinforces learning, builds endurance,^test-taking and time-management skills, ^testing comfort ¦ Reinforces concepts and principles, ^new learning, strengthens critical thinking, corrects misinformation ¦ Identify commonalities and differences, ^opportunities for exploring content Example Variety of causes that can ^BP: Hypervolemia, rigid arterial walls, emotional stress ¦ Answer questions at the end of a chapter ¦ Take a simulated test in a NCLEX prep book ¦ Take a simulated NCLEX test on a computer ¦ Review why the correct answer is correct ¦ Review why the incorrect options are incorrect; look up additional information in textbooks ¦ Change a key word in a stem to change the focus: “Identify the pt adaptation associated with acute pain. ” Change the word acute to chronic and then identify if any options apply ¦ Identify number of questions answered correctly/incorrectly ¦ Group questions answered incorrectly by Knowledge Deficits and Information Processing Errors (see Tab 8) ¦ Identify Personal Performance Trends (see Tab 8) ¦ Design a plan for future test success Practice test taking Review rationales for all options 7 Modify test questions

Analyze your performance ¦ Analysis identifies areas of strength, gaps in knowledge, information-processing errors, effectiveness of educated guesses, plans for future study TIPS TIPS Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. Test-Taking and Study Tips See enclosed disk for 160 examples of questions demonstrating the 15 testtaking tips and alternate format questions. Identify positive polarity in a stem ¦ Correct answer is in accord with a truth, fact, principle, or action that should be done; it attempts to determine if you can understand, apply, or differentiate correct information. ? Study Tip: Review content being tested; identify additional things the nurse should do.

Identify negative polarity in a stem ¦ Correct answer reflects something that is false; the words except, not, contraindicated, unacceptable, least, avoid, violate, untrue, side effect, and exception indicate negative polarity. If 3 answers appear correct, you may have missed the negative word in the stem. ? Study Tip: Change negative word to a positive word and then answer the question. Identify words that set a priority ¦ Correct answer is what should be done first; the words initial, main, primary, initially, greatest, best, first, most, and priority require ranking of options from most to least desirable. If unable to identify correct answer, eliminate least desirable option and repeat again until left with a final option. ? Study Tip: After selecting correct answer, select what action should be done next.

Identify opposites in options ¦ When 2 options reflect extremes on a continuum, frequently 1 of them is the correct answer; opposites may be obvious or obscure. ? Study Tip: Examples of opposites: hypo- vs. hyper-; increase vs. decrease; brady- vs. tachy-; identify what is associated with the incorrect opposite (e. g. , tachycardia is associated with hyperthyroidism vs. bradycardia being associated with hypothyroidism). Identify key words in a stem ¦ Identify important word or phrase that modifies another word (e. g. , early vs. late sign of shock). ? Study Tip: Change key words in stem; this changes focus of question and ^opportunities for learning. 8 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 9

Identify patient-centered options ¦ Correct answers testing principles in the affective domain focus on feelings, choices, empowerment, and preferences. ? Study Tip: Examples of pt-centered options: Acknowledging: “Losing your independence must be difficult? ” Offering a choice: “Would you like your bath at 7 or 10 today? ” Empowering: Encourage pt to write down questions for the physician. Determining preferences: “What foods do you like to eat? ” Identify equally plausible options ¦ When 2 options are similar and 1 is not better than the other, generally both are incorrect. ? Study Tip: Identify other equally plausible facts related to either the 3 incorrect options or the correct answer.

Identify options with “absolute” terms ¦ The words all, just, none, only, never, every, and always have no exceptions; 1 of these before a statement that is true generally makes it an incorrect option. Options with absolute terms are more often incorrect. ? Study Tip: Examples of options to be eliminated: Always position an infant prone and just prescription drugs can cause interactions; exceptions include: Always maintaining an airway and focusing on the pt. Identify the global option ¦ A global option is a broad general statement, whereas the 3 other options are specific and inherently are included under the mantel of the global option. ? Study Tip: What else can be included under the global option?

Identify options that deny a patient’s feelings, needs, concerns ¦ Options that deny feelings, give false reassurance, focus on nurse, encourage cheerfulness, or change the subject cut off communication and should be eliminated. ? Study Tip: Examples of options to be eliminated: Denies feelings: “Don’t cry. It is not so bad. False reassurance: “You’ll feel better tomorrow. ” ” ” Focuses on the nurse: “The thought of dying would frighten me. Cheerfulness: “Cheer up. You are getting better. ” Identify the unique option ¦ When 3 options are similar in some way and 1 is different, the unique option often is the correct answer (e. g. , 3 options promote a bowel movement and correct answer causes diarrhea). TIPS TIPS Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. ? Study Tip: Identify additional similar or different examples of correct and incorrect options.

Identify clues in a stem ¦ A word(s) in the stem that is identical, similar, paraphrased, or closely related to a word(s) in an option is called a clang; a clang can be obvious or obscure. Generally, an option with a clang is the correct answer. ? Study Tip: Identify a similar word(s) that relates to an important word in the stem (e. g. , to the word movement in a stem consider similar words such as activity and mobility that may be found in an option). Identify duplicate facts in options ¦ If 2 or more facts are in each option and identical or similar facts are in at least 2 of the 4 options, and you can identify at least 1 fact that is correct or incorrect, you can eliminate at least 2 options. ? Study Tip: Identify additional facts that may be correct.

Use Maslow to identify correct option ¦ Answer the question in light of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs; basic physiologic needs are 1st-level needs that are a priority and are followed by needs associated with safety and security (2nd), love and belonging (3rd), self-esteem (4th), and self-actualization (5th). ? Study Tip: Identify an intervention associated with each level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs in relation to the question. Use multiple test-taking tips ¦ First analyze the stem for 1 or more test-taking tips. Then analyze the options for 1 or more test-taking tips. When you focus on what the stem is asking and eliminate options from consideration, you maximize the ability to select the correct answer. Study Tip: Practice answering questions at the end of a chapter or in test-taking books using the presented test-taking tips. Alternate Format Questions and Test-Taking Tips Alternate format questions evaluate certain knowledge more effectively than the typical multiple-choice question. They supplement multiple-choice questions, which remain the majority of questions. Any format, including the standard multiple-choice question, may include a chart, table, or graphic image. Alternate format questions are scored as either right or wrong, and partial credit is not given. 10 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 11 Ordered response (drag and drop) question ¦ Presents a scenario or makes a statement and then lists a variety of actions or factors that must be placed n sequence or in order of priority. The sequence chosen must be identical to the correct sequence to receive credit. ? Test-Taking Tip: Identify the action/factor you believe should be first. Identify the action/factor you believe should be last. Evaluate the remaining 2 actions/factors and make a final determination as to which one goes second. The remaining action/factor is placed third. Fill-in-the-blank (calculation) question ¦ Requires manipulation, interpretations, or solving a problem based on presented information. It requires an intellectual skill such as computing a drug dosage, calculating an I&O, or determining the amount of IV solution to be given.

The recorded answer must be identical to the correct answer to receive credit. You do not have to type in the unit of measurement. ? Test-Taking Tip: Before attempting to answer the question, recall information related to the question (e. g. , memorized equivalents, formulas); this taps your knowledge first and limits confusion. Multiple-response question ¦ Asks a question and then lists several responses. You must identify the 1 or more responses that are correct. All correct responses must be selected to receive credit. ? Test-Taking Tip: Before looking at presented options, quickly review information you know about the topic. This taps your knowledge first and limits confusion after looking at presented options.

Compare your list to presented options. Some of your recalled information should match. Then review the remaining presented options and determine if they are applicable. If you look at the presented options first, eliminate at least 1 or 2 you believe are wrong. Then identify at least 1 or 2 you believe are correct. Finally, evaluate the remaining options and make a determination if they are correct or not. Hot-spot question ¦ Asks a question in relation to a graphic image, picture, chart, or table. You must identify a location or analyze information on the illustration to answer the question. Your answer must mirror the correct answer exactly to receive credit. Test-Taking Tip: Read the question carefully to identify exactly what the question is asking. This limits misinterpretation and confusion. When questions reflect anatomy and physiology, close your eyes, visualize the area, briefly recall the significant structures and functions, and then look TIPS TIPS Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. at the picture. When questions involve graphs or tables, first break them into segments for analysis and then review them as a whole. Chart/exhibit question ¦ Presents a problem and then provides a chart/exhibit that has several tabs. Each tab has to be clicked to retrieve information contained within the tab.

The data must be analyzed and the significant information gleaned from the material presented to answer the question or eliminate incorrect options. These questions require the highest level of critical thinking (analysis and synthesis). ? Test-Taking Tip: First identify what the question is asking, then click each tab to collect data. Dissect, analyze, and compare and contrast the information collected in light of what the question is asking. Extensive information must be recalled from your body of knowledge and compared to the information in context of the situation presented in the question. 12 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)—Child and Infant

Maneuver Assess for response Activate 911 1 rescuer Airway breaths Child: 1year–adolescent Tap and ask, “Are you OK? ” Infant: 1yr No response to verbal or tactile stimuli Witnessed collapse with no response; unwitnessed event after 5 cycles of CPR Place on hard surface; head tilt-chin lift (lift-jaw thrust with spinal trauma); look, listen, feel for air; if not breathing, give 2 breaths; cover nose and mouth of infant when rescue breathing Brachial or femoral Carotid or femoral Center of chest below nipples Center of chest, between nipples 1 rescuer: 2 fingers 1 hand: Heel of 1 hand 2 rescuers: 2 thumb-encircling hands 2 hands: Heel of 1 hand and heel of second hand on top Rate:

Approximately 100/min Depth: Approximately 1/3 to 1/2 depth of chest 1 rescuer—30:2; 2 rescuers—15:2 Sudden collapse: ASAP No recommendation for infants 1yr All others: After 5 cycles of CPR Pulse with no breaths: 60/min: 12 to 20 breaths/min; 60/min: continue CPR Pulse check Compression landmarks Compression method: “Hard and fast” with chest recoil Compression rate and depth Comp/vent ratio Defibrillation Rescue breathing 13 BASICS BASICS Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. Ethical and Legal Foundations Basis of Ethical Decision Making ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ Autonomy: Support personal freedom and decision making Beneficence: Promote good Fidelity: Keep promises and commitments Justice: Treat people fairly and equally Nonmaleficence: Do no harm Paternalism: Make or allow a person to make a decision for another ¦ Respect: Acknowledge rights of others ¦ Veracity: Tell the truth Legal Terms Advance directive: Written document that addresses treatment desires in the future if unable to make decisions ¦ Living will: Specifically identifies treatment desires ¦ Health care proxy (durable power of attorney): Assigns decision making to another ¦ Do not resuscitate: Order stating that a patient should not be revived; at request of patient when able; health care proxy, family member, or legal guardian when patient is unable to give consent ¦ Assault: Threat of unlawful touching of another ¦ Battery: Unlawful touching of another without consent (e. g. , procedures performed without consent) ¦ False imprisonment: Restriction/retention of patient ithout consent; use restraints in compliance with policy and procedure; have patient sign release if desiring to leave facility against medical advice ¦ Good Samaritan Law: Legal protection for those who render care in an emergency without expectation of remuneration ¦ Libel: Written statement causing harm to patient 14 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 15 ¦ Malpractice: Professional negligence; occurs when the nurse owed a duty to the patient, the nurse did not carry out that duty, and it resulted in injury to the patient ¦ Negligence: Failing to perform an act that a reasonable prudent nurse would do under similar circumstances; may be an act of omission or commission.

Examples: Failure to ensure patient safety (falls); improper performance of a treatment (burns from warm soak); med errors; inappropriate use of equipment (excessive IVF via pump); and failure to monitor, report, or document patient’s status ¦ Organ donation: Donor card, living will, or family consent if patient is unable to participate in decision is necessary to donate organs ¦ Respondeat superior: Latin term meaning “let the master answer”; employer is responsible for acts of employee causing harm during employment activities ¦ Slander: Oral statement resulting in damage to patient; nurse incorrectly tells others that patient has AIDS and it affects patient’s business ¦ Uniform Determination of Death Act: ¦ Cardiopulmonary criteria: Irreversible cessation of circulatory and respiratory function ¦ Whole-brain criteria: Irreversible cessation of all functions of the entire brain and brain stem (organs may be healthy for donation even though meeting whole-brain criteria) Disease and Treatment Mnemonics CAUTION: EARLY SIGNS OF CANCER Change in bowel or bladder habits A sore throat that doesn’t heal Unusual bleeding or discharge Thickening or lump Indigestion; dysphagia Obvious change in a wart or mole Nagging cough ot hoarseness INFECT: S&S OF INFECTION Increased pulse, respirations, WBCs Nodes are enlarged Function is impaired Erythema, Edema, Exudate Complains of discomfort/pain Temperature – local or systemic RICE: TREATMENT FOR ACUTE INJURY Rest; vstress/strain on injury Ice; vasoconstriction vedema and pain Compression; external pressure Elevate: gravity vedema BASICS Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis.

Therapeutic Nurse-Patient Relationship Phases of Interaction Phase Preinteraction: Begins before contact with patient Orientation (introductory): Begins at first meeting of nurse/patient Working: Begins when patient identifies problems to be worked on Nurse Explore personal feelings, values, attitudes Collect data about patient Plan for 1st interaction Listen; be empathetic Identify boundaries of relationship (termination begins here) Clarify expectations Establish rapport Assist with exploration of issues Support healthy problem solving Assist with strategy development Identify own reactions to client based on own needs, conflicts, relationships (counter transference) Review objectives/goals achieved Reinforce adaptive behaviors Share feelings about termination Avoid discussing previous issues Encourage independence; focus on future Promote positive family interactions Refer to community resources Patient Patient has no role in this phase

Recognize need for help Commit to a therapeutic relationship Begin to test relationship Develop trust in nurse Examine personal issues Develop strategies to resolve issues May superimpose feelings from another relationship onto the nurse/patient relationship (transference) Share feelings about termination (anger, rejection, regression; negative feelings may be expressed to deal with loss) May attempt to discuss previous issues Assume responsibility for use of community resources Resolution (termination): Begins when problems are resolved; ends when relationship is terminated BASICS 16 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 17 Interviewing Interviewing Skills ¦ Active listening: Absorbs content/feelings; uses all senses; includes verbal/nonverbal attending, appropriate gestures (head nodding), eye contact, sitting, open posture, vocal cues (“mmm”). Clarification: Asks for more information. Checks accuracy. vAmbiguity: “I am not sure I know what you mean by that. ” ¦ Confrontation: Presents reality, identifies inconsistencies. ^Selfawareness. Use gently after trust is developed. Pt: “I never have any visitors. Nurse: “I was here yesterday when you had 3 ” visitors. ” ¦ Direct: Collects specific information quickly: “Where is your pain? ” ¦ Focusing: Let patient finish thoughts. Centers on key elements to vrambling. “When talking about your house, you mentioned scatter rugs. Let’s talk more about being safe in your home. ” ¦ Nonverbal: Promotes verbalization. Techniques include leaning forward, nodding head, smiling, gestures. Open-ended: Invites elaboration, nonthreatening. Avoids yes/no answer: “Tell me about what a typical day is like for you. ” ¦ Paraphrasing: Restates message in same/similar words. Focuses on content; encourages discussion. Pt: “I may not make it through the surgery. Nurse: “You think you are going to die? ” ” ¦ Reflection: Describes/interprets feelings/mood: “You sound upset. ” ¦ Silence: Allows for reflection, processing a response. Prompts talking. Useful when patient is sad/grieving or remaining quiet. ¦ Summarizing: Reviews key elements; brings closure. Clarifies expectations: “Today we talked about . . . ” ¦ Touch: Conveys caring, is reassuring.

May invade personal space; avoid with suspicious or angry patients. Hold patient’s hand, patting gently on patient’s shoulder. ¦ Validation: Confirms what the nurse heard or observed: “I understand that you just said . . . ” Barriers to Communication ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ Pain Failing to listen Overly optimistic statements (false reassurance) Advising Changing topic Judgmental or minimizing comments BASICS BASICS ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. Challenging, defensive, or disapproving responses Direct probing and “how” and “why” questions Interruptions, environmental noise, or extremes in temperature Trite, common expressions (cliches) Leadership Leadership and Management Terms ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ Accountability: Answerable for actions/judgments regarding care Autonomy: Nurse can make independent decision to decide/act Case management: Coordination of interdisciplinary care for pt Decentralized management: Staff participate in decision making Performance appraisal: Evaluation of a nurse’s compliance (quality & quantity) with standards and roles within job description ¦ Professional standards: Actions consistent with minimum safe professional conduct. Description of responsibilities. ANA, JCAHO, agency policy and procedure ¦ Quality improvement: Activities to ^achievement of ideal care ¦ Responsibility: Duties and activities that nurse is hired to perform Leadership Styles ¦ Autocratic: Complete control over decisions, goals, plan, and evaluation of utcomes; firm, insistent; often used in emergencies or when staff is inexperienced or new ¦ Democratic: Participative; shares responsibilities; uses role to motivate staff to achieve communal goals (shared governance), encourages intercommunication and contributions; used to help staff grow in abilities; ^motivation, ^staff satisfaction ¦ Laissez-faire: Nondirective; relinquishes control & direction to staff; best used with experienced, expert, mature staff who know roles Tasks That May Not Be Delegated to Unlicensed Nursing Personnel ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ Assessing, analyzing, and interpreting data Identifying nursing diagnoses Formulating a plan of care Evaluating pt responses to nursing care and extent of outcome achievement ¦ Screening and classifying pts to determine priority to receive intervention (triage) 18 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 19 ¦ Giving/monitoring parenteral medications ¦ Performing patient teaching ¦ Performing professional procedures (e. g. , sterile irrigations, insertion of urinary catheter, colostomy irrigation, tracheal suctioning) Leader and/or Manager Qualities

Effective leaders and managers need to: ¦ Understand human behavior Have insight into its relationship to beliefs, values, feelings; be sensitive to others’ feelings and problems ¦ Use effective communication skills Be clear, concise, avoid ambiguity; use appropriate format (verbal, written, formal, informal); be aware of own nonverbal behavior; support staff in growth of skills ¦ Use power appropriately Power attained through place in table of organization (positional); power attained through knowledge and experience or perceived by staff (professional); do not abuse ¦ Respond to staff needs Listen attentively, attend to needs, provide positive feedback, avoid favoritism, set realistic expectations, avoid mixed messages, and treat staff with respect: Counsel privately; keep promises; avoid threats, uperior attitude, criticism, or aggressive confrontation ¦ Delegate appropriately Right person (competent subordinate), right task (is within scope of practice), right situation (nursing assistant should not perform a routine task on an acutely ill patient), right communication (clear instructions, validate understanding of instructions), right supervision (monitor actions, evaluate outcomes, review with subordinate); leader retains accountability ¦ Provide opportunities for personal growth Aid less experienced nurse to ^knowledge, experience, responsibility (e. g. , mentor/preceptor, continuing education, staff education) ¦ Use critical thinking and problem solving Process requires effective communication, assessment, planning, and participation of staff and evaluation of outcomes ¦ Recognize conditions that are conducive to change Need is recognized by all staff and all have a stake in outcome; include all creatively in the process; focus on benefits; provide positive feedback; offer incentives ¦ Process follows problem-solving process BASICS BASICS Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. Change is planned and introduced gradually ¦ Change is initiated in a calm rather than chaotic atmosphere; best after a prior successful change ¦ Resistance is recognized and addressed; causes of resistance: change is threatening; lack of understanding; disagreeing with purpose/approach, beliefs, and values; ^in responsibility; habit; fear of failure Levels of Management ¦ First-level: Supervises nonmanagerial staff; oversees day-to-day activities of a group (e. g. , Team Leader, Charge Nurse) ¦ Middle-level: Supervises a group of first-level managers (e. g. , Supervisor, Coordinator, Head Nurse) ¦ Upper-level: Organizational executives; sets goals and strategic planning (e. g. , VP for Nursing, Associate Director of Nursing) Staff Nurse Role ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ Function as role model regarding professional conduct Receive report from nurse previously responsible for patient Make rounds on all pts immediately after receiving report Set priorities regarding pt needs: Immediate threat to survival (problems with breathing, VS, vLOC), requests for help (pain, toileting), urgent but not immediate needs (teaching) Coordinate and/or perform care for assigned pts; use time-management skills; complete all care assigned Delegate care to subordinates that is within their job description Monitor care delegated; establish clear expectations; encourage communication; evaluate patient outcomes related to delegated tasks (nurse retains accountability for delegated tasks) Give report to next nurse responsible for patient Engage in quality improvement (QI) activities Participate in intradepartmental and interdepartmental meetings Nurse Manager Role ¦ Function as a role model regarding professional conduct ¦ Set standards of performance; establish goals for the unit with the staff; mobilize staff and agency resources to attain goals ¦ Support mutual trust; treat staff with respect; counsel privately ¦ Empower staff: Support innovation, seek staff members’ opinions, promote professional environment and growth, reward growth ¦ Perform pt rounds with multidisciplinary team 20 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 21 Monitor nursing practice and achievement of standards ¦ Design and implement a quality improvement (QI) program for the unit; engage staff in QI activities ¦ Assist in staff development plan and orientation of new employees ¦ Schedule staffing for the unit ¦ Conduct regular staff meetings with all shifts ¦ Evaluate performance of subordinates (performance appraisal) ¦ Participate in intradepartmental and interdepartmental meetings Community Nursing ¦ Community health nursing (public health nursing): Nursing care for a specific population living in the same geographic area, or groups having similar values, interests, and needs. Aims to develop a healthy environment in which to live ¦ Public health functions: Community assessment, policy development, and facilitating access to resources. Cohesiveness is promoted by engaging community members in the problem-solving process and promoting empowerment through education, opportunities, and resources.

Successful public health programs are congruent with that of the interests and goals of the community ¦ Assessment of a community: ¦ Structure (milieu): Geographical area, environment, housing, economy, water, and sanitation ¦ Population: Age and sex distribution, density, growth trends, educational level, cultures and subcultures, religious groups ¦ Social systems: Education, communication, transportation, welfare, and health care delivery systems; government and volunteer agencies ¦ Community-based nursing: Nursing care delivered in the community while focused on a specific individual’s or family’s health care needs. The individual is viewed within the larger systems of family, community, culture, and society ¦ Vulnerable populations: People at risk for illness (e. g. homeless, living in poverty, migrant workers, living in rural communities, pregnant adolescents, suicidal individuals, frail older adults) ¦ Stigmatized groups: People viewed with disdain/disgrace (e. g. , pts with dx of HIV positive, substance abuse, mental illness) ¦ Settings in which nurses work: Homes, community health centers, clinics, industry, rehabilitation centers, schools, crisis intervention centers (phone lines), shelters, halfway houses, sheltered workshops, day care centers, forensic settings BASICS BASICS Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. ¦ Roles of nurses: Discharge planner, case manager, counselor, and epidemiologist, health promoter, case finder, caregiver, educator, esearcher, consultant, advocate, role model, change agent ¦ Hospice care: Palliative (relieve or vdiscomfort) and supportive care for dying persons and their caregivers. Experts in pain and symptom management. Focuses on preserving dignity and quality over quantity of life. Supports bereavement; usually during last 6mo of life ¦ Respite care: Temporary care for homebound so that caregivers have relief from day-to-day responsibilities Patient Education Learning Domains Cognitive domain: Thinking, acquiring, comprehending, synthesizing, evaluating, storing, and recalling information. ¦ Build on what pt knows. Present essential information first. Add information as pt asks questions. Teaching strategies: Lecture, discussion, audiovisuals, printed material, computer-assisted and Web-based instruction. ¦ Evaluation: Assess knowledge by verbal/written means. Affective domain: Addresses attitudes, feelings, beliefs, values. Takes time to internalize need-to-change behavior. ¦ Understand own value system. Respect uniqueness of each pt. Help pt explore feelings. ¦ Teaching strategies: Discussion, play, role modeling, panel discussion, groups, role-playing. ¦ Evaluation: Evidence of behavior incorporated into lifestyle. Psychomotor domain: Addresses physical/motor skills. Requires dexterity and coordination to manipulate equipment. Ultimately performs a task with skill. Achieve mastery of each step before moving on to next step. ¦ Teaching strategies: Audiovisuals, pictures, demonstrations, models. ¦ Evaluation: observation of performance of skill (return demonstration). Teaching and Learning—General Concepts ¦ Education can prevent illness, promote or restore health, vcomplications, ^independence and coping, ^individual and family growth. Incorporate throughout health care delivery. ¦ Environment should be conducive to learning: Private, quiet, well lit, comfortable, and lack distractions (close door/curtain, shut off TV). ¦ Teaching process should follow format of Nursing Process. 22 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 23 Both short- and long-term goals should be set to ^motivation and allow for evaluation. Goals must be pt centered, specific, measurable, realistic, and have a time frame. ¦ A variety of teaching strategies that use different senses should be used (written materials, videos, discussion, demonstration). ¦ Teaching can be formal/informal, individualized, or within a group ¦ Information should move from the simple to complex, from known to unknown, be appropriate for pt’s cognitive and developmental level. ¦ Shorter more frequent sessions most effective (15–30min) ¦ Learning is ^with repetition, consistency, practice. ¦ Evaluation and documentation are essential elements of teaching. Patient Factors That Influence Learning

Culture, religion, ethnicity, and language: Commonalities and differences exist between cultures and among people from within the same culture. ¦ Be culturally sensitive and nonjudgmental. ¦ Avoid assumptions, biases, and stereotypes. Seek help from multicultural team. ¦ Provide teaching in pt’s language. Use professional translator. Knowledge and experience: Can promote or deter learning. ¦ Identify what patient already knows. Build on this foundation. ¦ Explore concerns related to experiences. Correct misconceptions. Literacy: Years in school may not accurately reflect reading ability. ¦ Assess ability to read and comprehend material (confusion, nervousness, excuses may indicate vability to read). Use illustrations, models, videos/films, discussion. ¦ Provide privacy.

Developmental level: ¦ Children: The younger the child the shorter the attention span. May regress developmentally when ill. Imagination can ^fear and misconceptions. Toddlers and preschoolers are concrete thinkers; school-age children are capable of logical thinking. ¦ Nursing: Identify developmental age to determine appropriate strategies and tools (dolls, puppet play, role playing, drawing, games, and books). Use direct, simple approach. Also direct teaching to parents. ¦ Adolescents: Need to be similar to peers. Seeking autonomy. Focused on the present. ¦ Nursing: Be open and honest about the illness. Respect opinions and need to be like peers. Support need for control.

Learning must have immediate results. BASICS BASICS Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. ¦ Adults: Need to be self-sufficient and in control. ¦ Nursing: Assess for readiness. Learning most effective when selfdirected, built on prior knowledge and experience, and has a perceived benefit. ¦ Older adults: Needs are highly variable. Functional changes, stress, fatigue, and chronic illness can vlearning. Changes that may occur include slower cognition, slower reaction time, becoming overwhelmed with too much detail, and vability to recall new information. ¦ Nursing: Do not underestimate learning ability. vPace of teaching to allow more time to process information and make decisions.

Plan shorter, more frequent teaching sessions. Teach main points and avoid irrelevant details. Readiness to learn: Receptiveness to learning. ¦ Patient has to recognize the need to learn and be physically and emotionally able to participate. ¦ Depression, anxiety, anger, denial will interfere with readiness, motivation, and concentration. ¦ Pain, acute/chronic illness, O2 deprivation, fatigue, weakness, and sensory impairment can interfere with learning. ¦ Identify readiness (pt states misconceptions, asks questions, demonstrates health-seeking behaviors, is physically comfortable, and anxiety mild). ¦ Select teaching aids appropriate for pt’s sensory limitations. Postpone teaching until pt is able to focus on learning; address factors that interfere with learning. Motivation: Drive that causes action. Essential to learning. ¦ Personal desire to learn (intrinsic motivation, internal locus of control) such as feeling better after stopping smoking. ¦ Desire to learn because of an external reward (extrinsic motivation, external locus of control) such as ^salary. ¦ Be sincere and nonjudgmental, ensure material is meaningful, make contractual agreement, and set short-term goals to ensure success. ¦ Identify/praise progress (positive reinforcement), avoid criticism (negative reinforcement), allow for mistakes. ¦ Use interactive strategies; do not let anxiety level climb past mild. Assess for vmotivation (distraction, changing subject). 24 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 25 Basic Nursing Measures Body Mechanics ¦ Maintain functional alignment: ^Balance, movement, physiologic function; avoids stress on muscles, tendons, ligaments, bones, joints; avoid rotating or twisting body; use supportive devices. ¦ ^Balance by keeping wt within the center of gravity; avoid reaching. ¦ ^Stability by spreading feet apart to widen base of support. ¦ Use large muscles of legs for power; avoids back muscle strain. ¦ Flex knees and hold objects being lifted close to body; lowers center of gravity and keeps wt within base of support; ^stability; vstrain. Raise bed to working ht; working closely to object being lifted or moved keeps object within center of gravity. ¦ Use internal girdle to stabilize pelvis when lifting, pulling, stooping. ¦ Use body wt as a force for pushing/pulling; lean forward and backward or rock on feet; vstrain on back. ¦ Pull, push, roll, slide rather than lift; face direction of movement. Fall Prevention ¦ Assess for risk factors: History of falls, vsensory perception, weakness, vmobility, vLOC, ^anxiety, confusion, vmental capacity, meds (diuretics, opioids, antihypertensives). ¦ Orient to bed and room; teach use of ambulatory aids and call bell; answer call bell immediately. ¦ Keep bed in lowest position unless receiving care. Raise 3 of 4 side rails; raise 4 rails if it is patient’s preference or there is an order (4 raised rails are considered a restraint). ¦ Lock wheels on all equipment and ensure that equipment is intact. ¦ Keep call bell, bedside and overbed table, personal items in reach. ¦ Keep floor dry and free of electric cords/obstacles; use night light. ¦ Encourage use of grab bars, railings, rubber-soled shoes. ¦ Stay with patient in bathroom/shower (need MD order for shower). ¦ Teach fall-prevention techniques (e. g. , rise slowly). ¦ Use monitoring device to signal attempt to ambulate unassisted. BASICS BASICS Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. Fire Safety ¦ Stay calm; keep halls clear; do not use elevator; stay close to floor. ¦ Know location and use of alarms and extinguishers. Evacuate pts in immediate danger first and then ambulatory, those needing assistance, and finally bedbound pts. ¦ Class A fire: Wood, textiles, paper trash; water extinguisher. ¦ Class B fire: Oil, grease, paint, chemicals; dry powder and CO2 extinguisher; water will spread fire; touching horn of CO2 extinguisher can freeze tissue. ¦ Class C fire: Electrical wires, appliances, motors; dry powder and CO2 extinguisher. ¦ RACE: Rescue pts in danger; Activate alarm; Contain fire (close doors/windows); Extinguish fire if small; Evacuate horizontally and then vertically. Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)—Adult Assess for response Activate 911—1 rescuer Airway—breaths Tap and ask, “Are you OK? Witnessed collapse with no response; unwitnessed event after 5 cycles of CPR Put on hard surface; head tilt-chin lift (liftjaw thrust with spinal trauma); look, listen, feel for air; if not breathing, give 2–1 second breaths Center of chest; lower half of sternum (not over xiphoid) Heel of 1 hand, heel of 2nd hand on top (“hard and fast” allowing for chest recoil) Rate: Approximately 100/min; Depth: 11/2 to 2 inches 30:2 Carotid Sudden collapse: As soon as possible All others: After 5 cycles of CPR Pulse 60/min with no breathing: 10 to 12 breaths/min; 1 breath every 3–5 sec Pulse 60/min with no breathing: Continue CPR Compression landmarks Compression method Compression rate and depth Compression/ventilation ratio Pulse check Defibrillation Rescue breathing 26 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. Foreign Body Airway Obstruction—Child and Infant

Child: 1year–adolescent Infant: 1yr Mild: Can cough and make sounds; Severe: cannot cough, make sounds, or speak; difficulty breathing; pallor; cyanosis Mild: Continue to monitor Mild: Continue to monitor Severe: Abdominal thrusts until object Severe: Deliver 5 back blows and 5 is expelled or victim unresponsive chest thrusts; repeat until object is expelled or victim unresponsive Head tilt-chin lift; inspect mouth; remove object if present in pharynx; implement CPR but always inspect for object in pharynx before attempting 2 rescue breaths and remove if present; continue CPR Assess for extent of obstruction Victim is conscious Victim becomes unresponsive 27 Foreign Body Airway Obstruction (FBAO)—Adult Assess for extent of obstruction Abdominal thrusts Victim becomes unresponsive Mild: Can cough and make sounds; Severe: cannot cough, make sounds, or speak; difficulty breathing; pallor; cyanosis.

Ask, “Are you choking? ” If victim nods yes, initiate abdominal thrusts Mild: Continue to monitor; Severe: Abdominal thrusts until object is expelled or victim becomes unresponsive Head tilt-chin lift; inspect mouth; remove object if present in pharynx; implement steps in CPR for adult but always inspect mouth for object in pharynx before each 2 rescue breaths BASICS Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. Pain Management FACES Pain Rating Scale Alternate coding 0 No hurt 0 0 No Pain 1 1 Hurts little bit 2 2 Mild Pain 3 2 3 4 Hurts Hurts Hurts little more even more whole lot 4 6 8 4 5 6 Moderate Pain 7 8 Severe Pain 5 Hurts worst 10 9 10 Unbearable Pain BASICS

Source: Wong-Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale. From Wong D. L. , Hockenberry-Eaton, M. , Willson D. , Winkelstein M. L. , Schwartz, P Wong’s Essentials of Pediatric Nursing, 6th ed. St. Louis, MO, 2001, p. 1301. Copyrighted by Mosby, Inc. . Reprinted by permission. 28 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 29 Pain Assessment Tool P: Provokes/point. What causes the pain? Point to the pain? Q: Quality. Is it dull, achy, sharp, stabbing, pressuring, deep, etc.? R: Radiation/relief. Does it radiate? What makes it better/worse? S: Severity/S&S. Rate pain on 1–10 scale. What S&S are associated with the pain (dizziness, diaphoresis, dyspnea, abnormal VS)? T: Time/onset. When did it start?

Is it constant or intermittent? How long does it last? Sudden or gradual onset? Frequency? Nursing Care ¦ Assess pain: Use tools/scales ¦ Provide comfort: Positioning, rest ¦ Validate pt’s pain: Accept that pain exists ¦ Relieve anxiety/fears: Answer questions, provide support ¦ Teach relaxation techniques: Rhythmic breathing, guided imagery ¦ Provide cutaneous stimulation: Backrub, heat and cold therapy ¦ Decrease irritating stimuli: Bright lights, noise, ^vroom temp ¦ Use distraction (for mild pain): Soft music; encourage TV/reading ¦ Provide pharmacologic relief: Administer meds as ordered ¦ Evaluate pt response: Document; modify plan Restraints—Nursing Care Physical or chemical intervention that vmovement ¦ Purpose: preventing falls, disrupting therapy, harming self/others ¦ Physical restraints: Devices used to vmovement (vest, mitt, wrist, elbow, belt, mummy) ¦ Chemical restraints: Meds to calm disruptive/combative behavior that may cause harm to self/others ¦ Nursing ¦ Document behavior requiring need and failure of less invasive measures to protect pt; secure daily order ¦ In emergency, notify MD and get order signed within 24hr ¦ Ensure functional alignment before applying ¦ Follow directions (correct size, snug but does not limit respirations or occlude circulation, apply vest with V opening in front, secure tails with slipknot to bed frame) ¦ Pad under wrist or mitt restraints ¦ Monitor respiratory and circulatory status routinely ¦ Every 1–2hr remove restraint, assess skin, and provide care, perform ROM BASICS BASICS Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. Visually Impaired Patient—Nursing Care ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ Knock on door, greet pt by name, identify self, and explain purpose Do not touch until after pt understands your name and purpose Approach in an unhurried manner and use clear, simple sentences Stay within the pt’s field of vision Orient to the room, location, and use of call bell Provide a predictable environment; remove all hazards vNoise and distraction in the environment; explain unusual noises Ensure glasses are clean, accessible, and protected when stored Inform of location of food on meal tray; use numbers on a clock Ambulate pt by walking slightly in front while pt holds your arm. Never try to push or guide from behind. Inform of doors, steps ¦ Make it clear to pt when the conversation is over or when leaving Hearing-Impaired Patient—Nursing Care Greet pt by name, identify yourself and your purpose, ensure quiet ¦ Use touch appropriately to alert pt that you are about to talk ¦ Face pt directly; avoid turning away from pt while you are speaking; to facilitate lip reading, do not cover mouth with your hand ¦ Talk in a normal tone at a moderate rate; speak clearly; articulate consonants carefully; do not overly articulate; do not yell ¦ Use gestures and facial expression to convey message ¦ Encourage use of hearing aid; facilitate repair of nonworking aids ¦ Remove hearing aid when showering or washing the hair ¦ Follow manufacturer’s directions to insert, remove, clean, and store aid Latex Allergy Type of Reaction

Local skin reaction: Direct skin-to-latex contact Excessive exposure can lead to systemic reaction Systemic: Direct skin-to-latex contact Contact with equipment exposed to latex S&S Nursing Actions Allergy wristband Not life-threatening Label chart Erythema, pruritus, Use latex-free equipment Popular, vesicular, (gloves, tape, dressings, scaling, or bleeding syringes, antiembolism lesions; stockings, tubing, Life-threatening tourniquets, stethoAngioedema scopes, electrode pads, Rhinitis or rhinorrhea, BP cuffs, any indwelling Conjunctivitis urinary catheters) Bronchospasm 30 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 31 Latex Allergy (Continued) Type of Reaction

Powder particles exposed to latex may be inhaled or absorbed via skin, mucous membranes, or blood S&S Anaphylactic responses Circulatory collapse Nursing Actions Notify pharmacy so meds and mixed solutions are latex-free Ensure procedure rooms are latex-free and patient is first case of day Neutropenic Precautions ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ For individuals with compromised immune system Use standard precautions, especially hand hygiene Caregivers and visitors should be free of communicable illnesses Private room if possible; keep room meticulously clean Teach to avoid sources of potential infection (crowds, confined spaces such as airplanes, raw fruits/vegetables, flowers/plants) Sterile Asepsis Check expiration date; ensure packages are dry, intact, and stain-free ¦ Discard opened sterile solutions older than 24hr; criteria for medicated/antiseptic solutions may differ ¦ Place cap on table with inner cap turned up; label with date, time, and initials; avoid touching bottle rim ¦ Place sterile equipment inside the outer 1 inch of sterile field ¦ Ensure that sterile objects touch only another sterile object ¦ Open sterile packages away from sterile field ¦ Keep sterile field in one’s line of vision ¦ Position solution closest to patient; keep field dry and free of moisture ¦ Don sterile gloves without contaminating sterile surfaces ¦ Keep sterile gloved hands and equipment above level of waist ¦ Avoid talking, coughing, sneezing around a sterile field ¦ Discard sterile objects that become contaminated or if doubtful BASICS BASICS Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. Standard Precautions: Tier 1 Perform hand hygiene before and after care and when soiled; most important way to prevent infection ¦ Use personal protective equipment (PPE) if touching, spilling, or splashing of blood or body fluids is likely; use gloves, gowns, mask, goggles, shields, aprons, head and foot protection ¦ Discard disposable items in fluid-impermeable bag and contaminated items in Biohazard Red Bag ¦ Do not recap used needles; dispose in sharps container ¦ Hold linen away from body; place in impermeable bag in a covered hamper; do not let hampers overflow ¦ Place lab specimens in a leak-proof transport bag without contaminating the outside; label with biohazard sticker and patient information ¦ Institute procedure for accidental exposure: Wash area, report to supervisor, receive emergency care, seek referral for follow-up ¦ Receive hepatitis B vaccine ¦ Assign patient to private room if hygiene practices are unacceptable ¦ Avoid eating, drinking, touching eyes, applying makeup in patient areas Transition-Based Precautions: Tier 2 AIRBORNE ¦ Used for microorganisms that spread through air (droplet nuclei 5 m [e. g. TB, measles, chicken pox]) ¦ Private room; negative air pressure room; door closed; high-efficiency disposable mask (replace when moist) or particulate respirator (e. g. , for TB); transport patient with mask, teach to dispose soiled tissues in fluidimpervious bag at bedside DROPLET ¦ Used for microorganisms spread by large-particle droplets (droplet nuclei 5 m, (e. g. , pneumonia [streptococcal, mycoplasmal, meningococcal], rubella, mumps, influenza, adenovirus) ¦ Private room if available or cohort pts, mask when within 3ft of pt, door open, mask for pt when transporting, teach to dispose soiled tissues in fluid-impervious bag at bedside CONTACT ¦ Used for organisms spread by direct or indirect contact; methicillinresistant S. ureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococcus (VRE), vancomycin intermediate-resistant S. aureus (VISA); enteric pathogens (e. g. , E. coli, C. difficile), herpes simplex, pediculosis, hepatitis A and E, varicella zoster, respiratory syncytial virus ¦ Private room or cohort pts; gowns, gloves over-gown cuffs; dedicate equipment 32 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 33 Nursing Care of Older Adults ( 65yr) Background DEMOGRAPHIC DATA ¦ 70% rate themselves as healthy. Majority live in the community; increasingly more live in assisted living facilities. 5% in nursing homes. PHYSICAL CHANGES ¦ Gradual vin physical abilities. Close vision impairment (presbyopia). Hearing especially for high-pitched sounds. vSubcutaneous tissue. vMuscle strength. Impaired balance and coordination. vImmune response. One or more chronic health problems. PSYCHOSOCIAL ISSUES ¦ Conflict is ego integrity vs. despair. Personality does not change but may become exaggerated. Adjusting to aging, vhealth, maintenance of quality of life, retirement, fixed income, death of spouse/friends, change in residence, own mortality. Reminiscing may become focused on bodily needs and comforts. Sexual expression (love, touching, sharing, intercourse) important and related to identity. COGNITIVE STATUS ¦ IQ does not v. Mental acuity slows (^time to learn, problem solve).

Long-term memory better than short-term memory. REACTION TO ILLNESS/HOSPITALIZATION ¦ Illness/recuperation longer. Secondary to vadaptive capacity. ^Feelings of inadequacy and mortality. May ^self-absorption, social isolation, frustration, anger, depression, especially if retirement goals are denied. Unfamiliar environment may cause confusion, anxiety. Chronic illness, pain, or impending death may cause dependence, hopelessness. May accept and prepare for death. ¦ Nursing: Understand commonalities of aging but approach each person as unique. Avoid stereotyping because it denies uniqueness, vaccess to care, and impacts negatively on individual.

Ensure access to health care and social services, especially in home. Critical illnesses deserve aggressive treatment if desired. BASICS BASICS Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. Common Problems Associated With Aging BOWEL AND BLADDER INCONTINENCE ¦ Not part of aging process. May be aggravated by vmuscle tone of anal and urinary sphincters and prostatic hypertrophy. ¦ Nursing: Ensure screening for UTI, bladder/prostate cancer. Assist with hygiene and skin care. Institute bowel or bladder retraining. ADVERSE DRUG EFFECTS ¦ Multiple health problems require ^prescriptions (polypharmacy) with vcoordination among MDs. vHepatic/renal function that results in accumulation, ^paradoxic effects. Nursing: ^Coordination of health care. Identify unnecessary or excessive doses of meds. Assess for adverse/toxic effects. FALLS/ACCIDENTS ¦ Secondary to sensory impairments (vision, hearing, touch), postural changes, vmuscle strength and endurance, orthostatic hypotension, neurologic and cardiovascular decline. ¦ Nursing: Assist with ambulation. Teach safety precautions (use grab bars, railings, and walker; rise slowly; keep feet apart for a wide base; give up driving when impairment jeopardizes safety). INFECTIONS ¦ Increased secondary to vimmune response. ¦ Nursing: Teach preventive measures (handwashing, avoiding crowds, smoking cessation.

Pneumococcal pneumonia vaccine, yearly flu vaccine. COGNITIVE IMPAIRMENT ¦ Not part of aging process. Delirium is potentially reversible and is associated with acute illness. Dementia is a chronic, progressive, irreversible disorder. Sundowning syndrome is confusion after dark. ¦ Nursing: See TAB 5—Mental Health Nursing for nursing care. ALCOHOL ABUSE ¦ Secondary to depression, loneliness, lack of social support. ¦ Nursing: Explore effective coping strategies. Refer to AA. RISK OF SUICIDE ¦ Secondary to multiple losses (loved ones, health), lack of social support; 20% experience depression, feelings of hopelessness, and isolation. 34 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 35 Nursing: Assess for suicide risk. Provide reality orientation, validation therapy, reminiscence. Support body image. Encourage psychological counseling; obtain order for antidepressant; referral to social service agency. SEXUAL RESPONSIVENESS/ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION ¦ Sexual response takes longer; vestrogen and testosterone; chronic health problems; medications; unavailable partner; cognitive impairment. ¦ Nursing: Provide privacy/dignity and nonjudgmental attitude, ^verbalization of concerns, suggest lubricants, penile prostheses, meds to reduce erectile dysfunction. SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS (STI) ¦ Need for sexual expression continues. Society recognition that sex is natural and acceptable even if single by choice or death of spouse. ¦ Nursing: Maintain nonjudgmental attitude; teach about STI prevention. LEADING CAUSES OF DEATH ¦ Heart disease, then cancer, stroke, lung disease, falls, diabetes, kidney and liver disease. Often have 1 or more chronic illnesses. ¦ Nursing: Focus on health promotion. Encourage smoking cessation, ^exercise, wt control, adequate nutrition. Provide screening programs to identify problems early and manage chronic conditions. Common Human Responses Vital Signs TEMPERATURE ¦ Afebrile: Oral: 97. 5–99. 5 F and rectal: 0. 5–1. 0 F^ than oral route ¦ Hyperthermia: 99. 5 F; hypothermia: 97. F PULSE ¦ Normal: 60–100bpm ¦ Tachycardia: 100bpm; bradycardia: 60bpm ¦ Thready: Weak, feeble; bounding: forceful, full ¦ Dysrhythmia: Irregular pattern ¦ Pulse deficit: Difference between radial and apical rate RESPIRATIONS ¦ Eupnea, normal: 12–20bpm ¦ Tachypnea: 20bpm; bradypnea: ¦ Apnea: Absence of breathing 12bpm BASICS BASICS Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. ¦ Hyperventilation: ^Rate and depth ¦ Kussmaul: Deep and rapid, associated with metabolic acidosis ¦ Cheyne-Stokes: Rhythmic waxing and waning from very deep to very shallow and temporary apnea ¦ Orthopnea: Upright position to breathe ¦ Dyspnea: Difficulty breathing BLOOD PRESSURE ¦ Normal: SBP 120 and DBP 80 ¦ Prehypertension: SBP 120–139 or DBP 80–89 ¦ Stage 1 hypertension: SBP 140–159 or DBP 90–99 ¦ Stage 2 hypertension: SBP ? 160 or DBP ? 100 Fever ^Temperature; low-grade fever 98. 6 F–101 F; high-grade fever 101 F

S&S: Fatigue, weakness, flushed, dry skin ETIOLOGY: Bacterial, viral, or fungal infection, DVT, med side effects, tumor NURSING ¦ Monitor VS and WBC; evaluate meds for possible drug-induced fever ¦ Obtain diagnostic tests (sputum, blood, or urine for C&S, chest x-ray) ¦ Perform focused assessments: vBreath sounds, crackles, rhonch; stiff neck; headache; photophobia; irritability; confusion; IV site, incisions and wounds for infection; legs for DVT (redness, warmth, swelling tenderness); urine for infection (burning on urination, cloudy, greenish/reddish color); GI S&S (diarrhea, N&V, abdominal discomfort) ¦ Encourage coughing and deep breathing; ^fluid intake ¦ Antipyretics, tepid bath, hypothermia blanket ¦ Change IV site if indicated Constipation ?2 stools a wk and/or hard dry feces (obstipation).

S&S: Distended abdomen, rectal pressure, back pain, straining at stool, anorexia, blood-streaked stools, vbowel sounds ETIOLOGY: Urge is ignored; vfluids, mobility, or fiber in diet; weak abdominal or pelvic floor muscles; med side effects (opioids, iron, MAO inhibitors); anal lesions; pregnancy; laxative or enema abuse; F&E imbalance; obstruction; child: stool-withholding behavior 36 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 37 NURSING ¦ Assess stools for frequency, amount, color, consistency ¦ ^Fluid intake, ^exercise and ^fiber in diet, binding foods (rice, bananas) ¦ Respond to urge; encourage sitting position and regular time each day ¦ ^Relaxation and privacy; give laxatives, cathartics, enemas as ordered Diarrhea Passage of fluid or unformed stool 3 a day

S&S: Frequent loose stool; abdominal pain, cramps, flatus, N and V, fatigue, ^bowel sounds, abdominal distention, anorexia; results in dehydration ETIOLOGY: Viral, bacterial, or parasitic gastroenteritis; contaminated food or water; spicy, greasy food; raw seafood; excessive roughage; lactose intolerance; AIDS; drug side effect; anxiety; inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis, Crohn’s disease); ingestion of heavy metals (lead, mercury); malabsorption syndrome NURSING ¦ Assess stools for frequency, amount, color, consistency ¦ Assess S&S of dehydration; ^PO fluid intake ¦ Assess perianal skin breakdown and provide skin care ¦ Assess antibiotic, stool softeners, and opiate use ¦ Ask about recent foreign travel and dietary intake ¦ Obtain stool specimen (C&S, ova, and parasite) ¦ Administer antibiotics, antidiarrheals, IV F & E as ordered ¦ Contact precautions as indicated Hemorrhage Bleeding that compromises tissue/organ perfusion S&S: ^Pulse, ^respirations, vBP narrowing pulse pressure; excessive blood , loss; capillary refill 3sec; vperipheral pulses; cool, moist, pale, mottled, or cyanotic skin; thirst. Early CNS S&S: vLOC, anxiety, irritability, restlessness. Late CNS S&S: Confusion, lethargy, combativeness, coma ETIOLOGY: External: Surgical and traumatic wounds.

Internal: blunt trauma, cancer, ruptured aneurysm, GI perforation, thrombolytic therapy NURSING ¦ Apply direct pressure; reinforce dressing (removal may dislodge clot) ¦ Monitor VS, I&O; lab results ¦ Maintain airway; give O2 ¦ Ensure #18 gauge IV access; Give IVF blood or colloidal products , BASICS BASICS Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. Shock Acute circulatory collapse; vO2 to cells, tissues, and organs S&S: vBP; vurinary output; capillary refill 3sec; cool, pale, mottled, or cyanotic skin; change in mental status. Hypovolemic: vPeripheral pulses. Neurogenic: Tachycardia or bradycardia. Anaphylactic: Anxiety, throat tightness, stridor, tachypnea, diaphoresis, flushing, urticaria, coma.

Septic: Fever, tachycardia, tachypnea ETIOLOGY: Hypovolemic: Blood loss, dehydration; Neurogenic: Spinal cord injury, anesthesia; Anaphylactic: Exposure to antigen; Septic: Infection, endo/exotoxin release NURSING ¦ Emergency intervention: Establish airway; suction if needed; O2 via nonrebreather mask 10–15 L/min; supine position with legs elevated unless airway compromised, then low Fowler’s; ensure IV access with 18-gauge needle; prepare for code, intubation, central venous access, IVF emergency meds; transfer to ICU , ¦ Ongoing assessments: ECG, hemodynamic monitoring, LOC, orientation, VS, pulse oximetry (may be unreliable due to vperipheral perfusion), I&O, and skin for color, temp, turgor, moistness ¦ Specific to types—hypovolemic: Control bleeding if present, volume replacement with crystalloids, colloids, plasma expanders, and/or blood products; cardiogenic: vasopressors, cardiotonics, antidysrhythmics; anaphylactic: epinephrine, antihistamines, steroids; septic: volume replacement, antibiotics, vasopressors, antipyretics; neurogenic: ensure spinal stabilization, vasopressors Infection Entry and multiplication of a pathogen in tissue.

Can be local or systemic or can progress from local to systemic. Example: UTIs can spread to kidneys and blood stream (urosepsis). Infection is accompanied by the inflammatory response S&S: Local: Erythema, edema, tenderness, heat, vfunction; purulent exudate; positive culture. S&S also depend on tissue involved. Systemic: ^VS (T, P R, BP); chills; diaphoresis; malaise; ^WBCs; positive , culture; occasionally headache, muscle/joint pain, changes in mental status ETIOLOGY: Invasion of bacterial, viral, or fungal pathogen NURSING ¦ Assess VS, S&S of inflammation and infection ¦ Obtain C&S before 1st dose of antibiotic if infection is suspected 38 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 39 ¦ ¦ ¦ Avoid excess bed covers, change linen if diaphoretic Promote rest and immobilization Give O2, IVF ^po fluids, ^protein, Vit C, and wound care as ordered , Transmission based precautions as indicated Inflammatory Response Local defensive vascular response to injury, infection, or allergen to protect and repair tissue; inflammatory response occurs with an infection SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS: Histamine, prostaglandin, bradykinin, and serotonin ^vascular permeability, causing fluids, protein, and cells to move into interstitial tissue. This causes local edema, heat, redness. Histamine irritates and edema places pressure on nerve endings > pain. Edema and pain contribute vfunction.

Exudate may be clear, plasmalike (serous), pink with RBCs, (sanguineous), or yellowish-green with WBCs and bacteria (purulent). Purulent exudate indicates infection ETIOLOGY: Local trauma, local infection NURSING ¦ Assess for S&S of inflammation and wound characteristics ¦ Provide wound care as ordered ¦ Elevate area if possible to vedema. Immobilize area to vpain ¦ Give antipyretics, anti-inflammatories, antibiotics as ordered ¦ Apply ice (at time of injury to ^vasoconstriction, which vpain/edema) or heat (after 24–48hr to ^circulation and remove debris and localize inflammatory agents) if ordered Nausea and Vomiting Unpleasant wavelike sensation in throat and epigastrium (nausea).

Ejection of GI contents through mouth (vomiting, emesis), which carries a risk of aspiration > atelectasis, pneumonia, asphyxiation S&S: Nausea, vomiting, ^vpulse, pallor, diaphoresis, bowel sounds^ or high pitched, abdominal pain, S&S of F&E imbalance (e. g. , hypokalemia, metabolic alkalosis) ETIOLOGY: Gastroenteritis, motion sickness, infection, pain, stress, med side effect, pregnancy, appendicitis, bowel obstruction, neurological causes (head trauma, vascular headache), ^ICP NURSING ¦ Maintain airway ¦ ^HOB or place in side-lying position; keep NPO ¦ Assess emesis characteristics and note if vomiting is projectile BASICS BASICS ¦ ¦ ¦ ¦ Copyright © 2007 by F. A.

Davis. Assess hydration status, I&O, electrolytes, daily weight Assess abdomen for distention and tenderness Attempt to determine cause Notify MD and obtain orders for alternate route for meds Orthostatic Hypotension vBP when rising from lying down to sitting or sitting to standing secondary to peripheral vasodilation without a compensatory ^cardiac output. Also called postural hypotension. S&S: Lightheadedness, vertigo, weakness; cool, pale, diaphoretic skin ETIOLOGY: Older age, immobility, hypovolemia, anemia, dysrhythmias, med side effect (opioids, antihypertensives, diuretics) NURSING ¦ Assess for ^pulse and vBP when changing position ¦ Rise lowly, “dangle” before standing, resume prior position if dizzy ¦ Assist to bed, chair, or floor if falling; if vBP continues—assess for vLOC, neurologic status, cardiac status, S&S of dehydration 40 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 41 Prenatal Period: Fertilization to Start of Labor Signs of Pregnancy ¦ Presumptive signs: Absence of menses (amenorrhea); 1st awareness of fetal movement (quickening) by 16–20wk ¦ Probable signs: Softening of cervix (Goodell’s sign); bluish-purple mucous membranes of cervix, vagina, and vulva (Chadwick’s sign); softening of lower-uterine segment (Hegar’s sign); floating fetus rebounds against examiner’s fingers (ballottement) ¦ Positive signs: Fetal heart sounds; fetal movement; ultrasound of fetus Prenatal Physiological Progression Ovum expelled from graafian follicle (ovulation); then sperm unites with ovum (fertilization) in fallopian tube within 24hr ¦ Fertilized ovum attaches to uterine endometrium (implantation) ¦ Conceptus called embryo (first 8wk), then fetus ¦ Trimesters: 1st (0–15wk); 2nd (16–27wk); 3rd (28–37/40wk) ¦ Nagele’s Rule: Expected date of birth (EDB); add 7 days to 1st day of last menstruation, subtract 3mo, add 1yr ¦ Cells differentiate wk 3–8 (organogenesis); negative influences (drugs, illness) may cause defects in embryo (teratogens) ¦ Fetal heart audible with Doptone after 12wk ¦ Fetal lungs produce pulmonary surfactants at 24–28wk ¦ Deposits of brown fat begin at 28wk; most ^wt in 3rd trimester ¦ S&S of impending labor: ¦ Fetal presenting part descends into true pelvis (lightening) ¦ Cervix thins/shortens (effacement); external os opens (dilation) ¦ Mild, irregular uterine contractions (preparatory contractions, formerly Braxton Hicks) ¦ Energy spurt (nesting), usually 24–48hr before labor ¦ Expulsion of mucous plug, usually 24–48hr before labor Prenatal Maternal Changes ENDOCRINE CHANGES ¦ Placenta secretes human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG); used for pregnancy screening; has role in AM nausea ¦ Progesterone and estrogen from corpus luteum in 1st trimester; from placenta in 2nd and 3rd trimesters ¦ Thyroid, parathyroids, and pancreas ^secretions; need for ^insulin ¦ Estro levels ^; excess in maternal saliva may indicate preterm labor CHILDBEARING CHILDBEARING Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. Labor initiated by posterior pituitary oxytocin, vprogesterone, ^estrogen, ^prostaglandins ¦ Nursing: Obtain specimens for screening tests CIRCULATORY CHANGES ¦ Cardiac output ^30–50%; blood volume ^50%, and RBCs ^30% (physiological anemia); vHct; WBCs ^ to 12,000mm3 ¦ Palpitations in 1st trimester are secondary to SNS stimulation and in 3rd trimester are secondary to ^thoracic pressure ¦ HR ^10–15 beats/min and BP drops in latter half of pregnancy; HR may ^40% with multiple fetuses ¦ Supine hypotension syndrome (vena cava syndrome): weight of uterus on vena cava vvenous return to heart and vplacental blood flow; signs and symptoms include vBP lightheadedness, and palpitations , ¦ Fibrinogen and other clotting factors ^ ¦ Varicose veins of legs, vulva, perianal area (hemorrhoids) due to pressure of uterus on pelvic blood vessels ¦ Edema of extremities last 6wk secondary to circulatory stasis ¦ Nursing: ¦ Teach patient to ^fluids, change positions slowly, elevate legs, wear antiembolism stockings, and avoid prolonged sitting. For thrombophlebitis: maintain bedrest, anticoagulant as ordered RESPIRATORY CHANGES ¦ O2 consumption ^15% by 16–40wk ¦ Nasal congestion and epistaxis 2o^estrogen levels ¦ Dyspnea 2o enlarged uterus pressing against diaphragm; subsides when lightening occurs around 38wk ¦ Nursing: ¦ Teach to balance rest/activity; avoid large meals ¦ Suggest to blow nose gently and use saline nasal spray REPRODUCTIVE CHANGES ¦ Amenorrhea; leukorrhea ¦ ^Vaginal acidity protects against bacterial invasion ¦ Cervical/uterine changes: Goodell’s, Chadwick’s, and Hegar’s signs ¦ Uterus in pelvic cavity at 12–14wk and then in abdominal cavity; to umbilicus at 22–24wk and almost xiphoid process at term ¦ Breast changes: Fullness, tingling, soreness, darkening of areolae and nipples, nipples more erect, veins more prominent, reddish stretch marks; Montgomery’s follicles enlarge ¦ Nursing: ¦ Assess fundal height ¦ Suggest side-lying, vaginal rear entry for intercourse ¦ Tell patient not to douche and to use a supportive brassiere and cotton underpants 42 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 43

GASTROINTESTINAL ¦ Nausea without vomiting (morning sickness) and ^salivation secondary to hormonal changes ¦ Food cravings; eating substances not normally edible (pica) ¦ Heartburn and gastric reflux secondary to delayed emptying of stomach and pressure of uterus ¦ Flatulence secondary to vGI motility, air swallowing ¦ Constipation secondary to vperistalsis, pressure of uterus, hemorrhoids ¦ Nursing: ¦ Teach to avoid gastric irritants, gas-forming foods, and antacids containing Na ¦ Remain upright 1hr after meals ¦ Small, frequent meals; dry crackers before arising ¦ ^Fiber, fluid, and walking ¦ For hemorrhoids: Avoid straining at stool and prolonged sitting, warm sitz baths or ice packs, anesthetic ointments URINARY ¦ Urinary frequency in early and late pregnancy secondary to enlarging uterus ¦ Bladder capacity ^ to 1500mL secondary to vbladder tone; may lead to stasis and infection ¦ vRenal threshold may cause glycosuria and mild proteinuria ¦ Nursing: ¦ Teach to void q2h and on urge to prevent stasis ¦ Assess for glycosuria secondary to DM and proteinuria 2o preeclampsia INTEGUMENTARY ¦ Blotchy, brownish skin over cheeks, nose, and forehead (melasma, chloasma); pigmented line from symphysis pubis to top of fundus in midline (linea nigra) ¦ Stretch marks over abdomen, thighs, breasts (striae gravidarum) secondary to adrenocorticosteroids during 2nd half of pregnancy ¦ ^Perspiration, oily skin, hirsutism, and acne vulgaris ¦ Nursing: ¦ Teach that changes are common and generally subside after birth ¦ Striae slowly lighten MUSCULOSKELETAL ¦ Softening of all ligaments and joints, particularly symphysis pubis and sacroiliac joints; backache 2o lordosis, and changes in center of gravity; leg cramps 2 hypocalcemia and pressure of uterus on pelvic nerves ¦ Nursing: ¦ Encourage intake of ^calcium foods and perinatal vitamin ¦ Teach body mechanics, avoid high-heeled shoes and lifting CHILDBEARING CHILDBEARING Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis.

NUTRITIONAL NEEDS ¦ 25–35lb gain: 2–5lb 1st trimester; 3/4lb per wk 2nd–3rd trimesters ¦ Calories: ^300cal/day to total of 2500cal/day ¦ Protein: 60 grams/day, an increase of 14 grams/day above prepregnant level ¦ CHO: Adequate to meet requirements; complex CHO preferred ¦ Fats: 30% of daily caloric intake; 10% should be saturated ¦ RDA vitamins and minerals attained in balanced diet and perinatal vitamin containing 400mcg folic acid; sodium is never completely restricted, avoid excess ¦ Nursing: ¦ Teach patient to have a well-balanced diet, avoid dieting ¦ Teach patient to take a multivitamin with 400mcg folic acid daily before conception and during pregnancy to prevent neural tube defects Prenatal Health Promotion Travel: Lap belt under abdomen and shoulder belt between breasts; stand/walk briefly q1h; airlines may restrict travel close to EDB ¦ Smoking: Avoid to prevent spontaneous abortion, vbirth wt, apnea in newborn ¦ Employment: Avoid excessive standing or work that causes severe physical strain/fatigue ¦ Alcohol: Avoid to prevent preterm birth, vbirth wt, fetal alcohol effects (FAE), or fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) ¦ Illicit drugs: Avoid to prevent teratogenic effect, vbirth wt, small for gestational age (SGA), fetal addiction, and dependency ¦ Caffeine: ^Risk of spontaneous abortion and intrauterine growth restriction; FDA recommends ? 2–3 servings (200–300mg) daily ¦ Artificial sweeteners: Studies are inconclusive but moderation is recommended; mothers with PKU should avoid aspartame Tests Performed During Pregnancy HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN (HCG) ¦ Tests for pregnancy ¦ hCG is produced by cells covering the chorionic villi of placenta ¦ Detectable 8 days after conception ¦ vOr slowly elevating levels: Threatened abortion, ectopic pregnancy ¦ ^Levels: May indicate ectopic pregnancy, hydatidiform mole, Down syndrome 44 Copyright © 2007 by F. A. Davis. 45

MATERNAL SERUM ALPHA-FETOPROTEIN (MS-AFP) SCREENING ¦ Fetal protein used to screen for neural tube defects ¦ Ranges identified for each wk of gestation ¦ Peak concentrations at end of 1st trimester ¦ 16–18wk optimum time for testing ¦ ^Levels: Risk of open neural tube defect ¦ vLevels: Risk of Down syndrome ¦ When vlevels persist, ultrasonography for structural anomalies and amniocentesis for chromosomal analysis are done CHORIONIC VILLUS SAMPLING ¦ Reflects fetal chromosomes, DNA, and enzymology ¦ Placental tissue aspirated at 10–12wk ¦ Earlier testing time than amniocentesis permits earlier decision regarding termination ¦ Also vrisk of 1st trimester spontaneous abortion and costs less than amniocentesis ¦ Complications: Infection, preterm labor ¦ Nursing: Obtain consent. Full bladder to serve as acoustic window. Assess VS and absence of uterine cramping. Provide emotional support. Teach spotting for 3 days is expected after transcervical route.

Report flulike symptoms and vaginal discharge of blood, clots, tissue, or amniotic fluid; avoid sexual activity, lifting, or strenuous activity until spotting resolves. Ensure genetic counseling if appropriate BIOPHYSICAL PROFILE ¦ Level II ultrasonography assesses FHR reactivity, fetal breathing movements and tone, amniotic fluid volume, gross body movement ¦ Fetus status reflected numerically like Apgar score ¦ Reflects CNS integrity; indicator of fetal crisis and demise ¦ Done in response to nonreassuring NST and signs and symptoms of fetal compromise ¦ Nursing: Same as ultrasonography; emotional support PERCUTANEOUS UMBILICAL BLOOD SAMPLINGS

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