Parenting Styles and their Effects on Children, This essay is about the three different styles of parenting, including definitions, descriptions, and effects. The present study examined the significance of methods of discipline used by parents and how these methods of discipline consequently affect multiple aspects of their child’s development. Even though there are a lot of different ways of parenting, in psychology they are classifies into three different categories. In the 1960s Diana Blumberg formulated 3 parenting styles based on an extensive long term study.
The three main categories are: Authoritarian parenting, permissive parenting, and authoritative parenting. As a parent this topic is very important because it has become necessary to value the job of parenting. Learning good parenting skills that are valuable and useful with the progression of child development is extremely essential. Diana Blumberg Baumrind is a clinical and developmental psychologist that specializes in parenting styles. Baumrind was born on August 23, 1927 in a small Jewish community in New York City; she was the first of two daughters born to Hyman and Mollie Blumberg.
Baumrind earned a B. A. in philosophy at Hunter College in 1948. She later received her M. A. and Ph. D. in Psychology at the University of California, Berkley; she studied developmental, clinical, and social psychology. Her doctoral dissertation was entitled “Some personality and situational determinants of behavior in a discussion group” Baumrind completed a clinical residency at the Cowell Memorial Hospital/Kaiser Permanente and was a fellow under the NIMH grant investigating therapeutic change, extending her research to families and therapy groups.
By 1960 Baumrind was a clinical and developmental psychologist at the Institute of Human Development at the University of California, Berkeley. She is pioneer known for her research on parenting styles and for her critique of deception in psychological research. These parenting styles include Authoritative, Authoritarian and permissive parenting that can give one a clear understanding of the effects on child development. Authoritative parenting involves firm limits on behavior with love, warmth, respect and compliance to listen to the child’s point of view.
This style of parenting allows the child to have input but the parents still maintain the role of final decision maker. Authoritative parents encourage children to be independent but still places controls and limits on their actions. Authoritative parents will set clear standards for their children and monitor the limits that they set. Authoritative parent also expect mature, independent, and age-appropriate behavior of children. These parents understand their children’s needs and concerns, and will typically forgive and teach instead of harsh punishing.
If any, punishment from an authoritative parent is nonphysical such as loss of privileges. This parenting style allows an explanation for cross limits and an argument on the appropriate way to handle the situation. The result of this parenting style is a higher self-esteem and independence because of the give-take nature of the authoritative parenting style. The outcome of this parenting style can be either positive or negative on the child development. Children raised by authoritative parents often grow up to think for themselves, communicate appropriately and make important decisions.
These children often grow into successful adults with a solid sense of self-worth. Children in authoritative homes amplify respect and tolerance of others. They grow into adults who are able to work together successfully in teams and groups. Authoritative parenting skill encourages the increased chance of success in college and the workforce. A child with Authoritative parents has the ability to know their strengths and weaknesses. Studies also show the downfall of authoritative parenting style, which shows children with authoritarian parents are more prone to abuse drugs and alcohol, as well as join gangs.
Authoritarian parenting is one whom tends to be overly concerned with rules. These parents are overly strict, showing little warmth to the child. The discipline is often so dominant in this relationship that the relationship is low on love and affection. This is not to say that an Authoritarian parent does not love but the child often does not perceive the love as being unconditional. Authoritarian parenting Style gives a clear understanding of what is expected. Authoritarian parents believe in holding their children to a very high level of achievement and status.
Authoritarian parents often use physical punishment as a form of discipline. Children raised with authoritarian-style parents are often very good at obeying authority. However authoritarian parenting styles affect development on higher rates of depression, lower self-confidence and poorer social skills in the children. These children learn to hide or lie about any negative behavior creating a continuous pattern. Since the child’s negative behavior remains hidden, the parent remains blind to what is really happening in his child’s life and is, therefore, unable to support change toward more positive behavior.
Authoritarian parenting styles also affect development negatively since it teaches children that physical violence is okay. Permissive parenting style is characterized by low demandingness with high responsiveness. The permissive parent is overly responsive to the child’s demands, seldom enforcing consistent rules. Permissive parenting is sometimes known as indulgent parenting. Parents who exhibit this style make relatively few demands upon their children. Because these parents have low expectations for self-control and maturity, they rarely discipline their children.
According to Blumberg, permissive parents “are more responsive than they are demanding. They are nontraditional and lenient, do not require mature behavior, allow considerable self-regulation, and avoid confrontation. ” In Permissive Parenting, children make their own decision without any restriction of their parents. Parents spread their love and give total attention to their children and make everything available to them on their fingertips. Parents apply such type of parenting style believing that children will support whatever the decision is taken by them.
The primary benefit of Permissive Parenting on child development is that children become independent and responsible with their own decision. Permissive Parenting style is considered to be good for children development that are introvert and shy since it will give them time to grow and become superior individuals. Because permissive parenting involves a lack of demands and expectations, children raised by parents with this style tend to grow up without a strong sense of self-discipline. They may be more unruly in school due to the lack of boundaries in the home, and may be less academically otivated than many of their peers. Since these parents have few requirements for mature behavior, children may lack skills in social settings. While they may be good at interpersonal communication, they lack other important skills such as sharing. In a recent study on child development, permissive parenting was linked to underage alcohol use; teens with permissive parents were three times more likely to engage in heavy drinking. Researchers also suggest that permissive parenting is linked to other risky behaviors such as drug use and other forms of misconduct. Permissive parenting has its pros and cons.
And can be applied or taken advantage of depending of the overall general nature of the child. The three parenting styles listed are the most used most revered and most “talked about” parenting styles discussed and modern age. As well as they are the most conversational and misused styles of parenting. All three styles are based upon contingency as well as the circumstances of the child’s development. There are many pro and cons of each style of parenting, and the singular binding factors is that the cons all out way the pros in regards to the child development.