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The pith of their voices= is one of the most obvious speech differences between women and men is in the pitch of their voices. This difference develops in puberty. • Boy? s vocal cords generally grow faster and bigger than girls at puberty. • Men? s heads and lungs are also larger than women? s. • A result male voices generally sound lower in pitch than women? s • Differences are relative. The pitch ranges of women and men overlap to a considerable extent. • The physical explanation is only part of the reason for sex differences in voice pitch.

Social and cultural factors contribute too. 1. Pronunciation in the people speech vary and have 2. Vocabulary many differences too. 3. Grammar • Age . graded patterns The extensive swear word vocabulary which some teenagers use is likely to change over time. • Slang Is another area of vocabulary which reflects a person age. Currents slang, is the linguistic prerogative of young people and generally sound old in the mouth of and older person.

Slang is so ephemeral; vocabulary can be a real give-away of you are trying to guess a person? s age on the telephone or radio. AGE AND SOCIAL DIALECT DATA • Social Dialect= research has provided a great deal of information about patterns of pronounciation and grammar for different age groups. • Social Dialectologists= found adolescents use the highest frequencies of vernacular forms, especially if they are forms which people crearly recognize or identify as non-standard.

They tend to peak adolescence when peer group pressure not to conform to sociaty? s norms is greatest, on then rise again in old age. When people are not aware that forms vernacular forms, there is no adolescent peak. A people get older their speech simply becomes less dialectal and more standard. • Patterns = for particular linguistic features may vary between communities, but there is general agreement that in their middle years people are most likely to recognize the society? speech norms and use the fewest vernacular forms. • The use of standard or prestige forms= peaks between the ages of 30 and 55 when people experience maximum societal pressure to conform. • Young people begin monolingual in French. • Then as they grow older, through school and work they become increasingly bilingual. • Bilingualism asset during their working life so the level of reported bilingualism rises to a peak between the ages of 30 and 50 while people are in the work force.

AGE GRADING AND LANGUAGE CHANGE Interpretations of DATA • The pronounciation of standard in medial and final position may be and age-graded feature. A people approach middle age their pronounciation of this sound become more standard and less vernacular. • The pronounciation are gradually displacing standard in the speech of younger people. When a linguistic change is spreading through a community, there will usually be a regular increase or decrease in the use of the linguistic form over time.

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