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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This work would not have been completed without the support I received. There several other people that contributed greatly in making it happen. I am particularly grateful to my daughter, my mother, my father, my brother and my colleagues from the University.

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I would also like to thank my supervisor Chris Rob for his assistance and guidance.

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

The aims and objectives of this major piece of work are to demonstrate an understanding of the resources gathered throughout the course BA (Honors) in Tourism Management over the past three years.

It is a great opportunity for me to carry out an individual research piece, in a topic that is of great interest to me as it matches my future career ambitions. Hence, I expect to have acquired enough knowledge after this research work and be more confident and ready to take on new challenges in a professional environment in a Tourism related role.

Similarly I expect to have improved my project management skills, with great emphasis placed particularly on running a project from start to completion, time and risks management and other challenges that are likely to occur when working on a given project.

The objectives of this work clearly match the learning outcomes of the course as stated in the course handbook and listed below:

Plan and execute a sustained piece of independent research
Define and analyze a complex business problem
Integrate academic knowledge and practical applications
Define appropriate research objectives and design a corresponding research strategy.
Manage a large, sustained task independently.
Plan and control a project over an extended period and to meet deadlines
Critically assess theoretical concepts, research methodologies, sources of data, and personal practice.
Synthesize and reflect on a range of sources and the application of theory in practical situations.
Learn from experience.
Make effective use of academic journals;
Collect, manage and analyze data appropriately;
Attain high standards in referencing the use of primary and secondary materials.
Structure and write up large amounts of material
Present and discuss data appropriately
Draw conclusions and where appropriate recommendations effectively.
Source: Course Handbook, Dissertation MARK1024 (2007 – 2008)

The content of this dissertation aims to answer the key questions relating to why people would want to leave their native country and to assess what motivational factors may influence perceptions about a destination.

The research is supported by data from a sample of five individuals who were interviewed about their opinions relating to travel and choice of destination.  The study has the restriction of being limited to a small number of people. However, these findings  provide scope for further investigation, namely extending to a wider audience and by cross-referencing tourists for example with different incentives and nationalities.
This study contributes to the overall understanding of why tourists adopt specific behaviors. With so many options available to tourists   in the twenty first century it is central to those working in the tourism sector, businesses and commercial ventures to understand some of the patterns and rationale surrounding choice and level of ability to travel, resulting from economic or social restrictions for instance.

The researchers Fakeye and Crompton developed a model in 1991 which was based around Clare Gunn’s 1972 theories relating to the seven phases of a travel experience. According to this study individuals have a pre-conception about a destination prior to even going there.
Fakeye and Crompton expanded this theory and created a framework of three stages of thought when determining why people travel to the variety of places they do. They concluded that individuals experience three fundamental images. Organic, induced and complex. An organic image is an awareness of a destination prior to experiencing any promotion, induced images are when promotions are viewed and evaluated and then assessed against their previous conceptions, with complex images resulting in the actual visit and experience surrounding the stay. They then linked these three stages to the three key functions associated with marketing and promotion – to inform, persuade and remind. (Bhuhalis&Laws, 2001)

This study will explore many conceptualized notions relating to outbound travel incentives and motivations. In doing so, the report will investigate the available forms of tourism, the main tourist destinations with regard to some specific types of tourism including lesser known examples such as War tourism, eco tourism and wildlife tourism.

ABSTRACT

Tourism is one of the most important and growing sector of the world economy. In some countries like Cuba or some entire regions such as the Caribbean, Tourism represents the main income generating activities, prompting a lot of investigation and research to be carried out in order to understand what motivates people in their travels, uncover the key factors tourists take into account when making decisions to visit or relocate to a new place.

People have different reasons and motives for wanting to move far away from their native locations. Those reasons can be of economic, simple adventure, love, war to name but a few.

Establishing the reasons why people do travel helps enormously in the grouping and categorization of tourists, which is key for tourist businesses to expand their market and flourish as they would have a clear knowledge of what a potential tourist is looking for, and what products exactly can be put on the market to attracts these tourists and make profits.

The goal of this research work is to try to establish the main reasons that would get people to want travel to far away places.

On this research the reader will get a clear understanding of the term tourism, and how the World Tourism Organization (WTO) defines a tourist.

Tourism could be defined as travel for predominantly recreational or leisure purposes or the provision of services to support this leisure travel.

The World Tourism Organization (WTO) defines tourists as people who “travel to and stay in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited”.

Source Wikipedia, Web, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tourism, retrieved on 28th March 2008

This report also provides an insight into the history of tourism, and how the whole industry has evolved chronologically from ancient to modern time as well as how other industries such as technology have impacted tourism around the world.

Also included in this report are the various forms of tourism including Wildlife, War, Gay, Bookstore, Atomic etc which basically could be seen as a way of grouping people’s reasons for traveling.

Lastly the author provides at the end of the report a personal opinion on the topic which has been investigated.

Contents

Chapter                                                                                                                  Page

Acknowledgements

Abstract

1. Introduction                                                                                                           8

2. Literature Review                                                                                                 9

3. Methodology                                                                                                          20

     3.1 Research approach                                                                                            21

     3.2 Literature review                                                                                              21

     3.3 Primary research                                                                                               22

            3.3.1 Interview administration                                                                        23

            3.3.2 Data analysis                                                                                          24

     3.4 Problems and limitations of methodology                                                       25

4. Presentation and Discussion of Findings                                                             26

5. Implications of this Research                                                                               34

     5.1  Recommendations for further research                                                           36

6. Bibliography                                                                                                          37

7. Appendices                                                                                                             40

     i.     Interview schedule

     ii.    Coding manual

     iii.   Coding schedule

8. Reflective Report                                                                                                   44

INTRODUCTION

In the twenty first century it is not only ‘western’ travelers that are now traveling. Globalisation and lifted restrictions across countries throughout the World are enabling people to become more mobile. This not only changes the dynamic of the traveler themselves but the way in which other countries respond to them and accommodate them. Consequently new strategies have had to be implemented across the world to start promoting countries to suit new markets. Not only China but Africa have recently emerged as nations now participating in considerable outbound tourism activity.

International departures trebled in China in 2000 from 10.5million to a staggering 31million in 2005. Figures such as this must make an impact on the tourist industry in some way. (http://www.som.surrey.ac.uk/WTM/[email protected])

This dissertation aims to explore the market for outbound tourism looking at recent market developments and new opportunities. It reviews the key issues that need to be considered in terms of modern influences on the tourism sector. In addition to considering future development issues and potential conflicting concerns for Tourism in the modern world reacting to environmental matters and increased levels of sourcing thrill-seeking and distinctive opportunities in relation to travel satisfaction.

People travel from one location to the other for various reasons. Some of the reasons are recreation purposes, visiting friends and relatives, religious pilgrimages, trade, migration etc. In this report, the main focus will to understand the reasons behind why and how people travel for recreation purposes in relation to the main topic of discussion which is Outbound Tourism.

People movement can be traced back many years as humans sought to gather food, escape from predators and satisfy their animal curiosity. Most of those movements were carried out on foot as there was no such means of transportation like cars, trains or airplanes prior to technological advancement.

As time evolved our brains grew larger; as did our curiosity and driven by many different reasons, humans began to travel more and more over long distances using various different means of transportation.

Traveling predominantly for leisure or recreation is termed as tourism. People who travel to places outside their usual environment for leisure are called tourists. Tourism is a popular worldwide leisure activity. The United Nations officially classified tourism into three areas in 1994

Domestic tourism
Inbound tourism
Outbound tourism.

Domestic tourism involves residents of a given country traveling within that country. Outbound tourism involves residents of a given country traveling to another country and inbound tourism involves residents of another country traveling in a particular country.

Within these classifications sit a number of various diverse smaller areas of tourism related to the type of activity travelers choose to embark on. All of which can be linked to Outbound Tourism if they involve leaving their country of residence to seek the type of holiday or experience they desire. Some of the more recognized examples together with their definitions include:

Winter Tourism – For travelers in pursuit of Winter Sports such as skiing or snowboarding. Therefore the need to locate somewhere cold and with snow is necessary to participate in these type of activity.

Medical tourism – A recent trend adopted by people needing to travel outside of their country to acquire the necessary surgery or cheaper cosmetic operations that they are unable to find at home.

Educational Tourism – For example student foreign exchange programmes or school/college excursions.

Adventure Tourism – Traveling to destinations that provide danger and unpredictability.

Dark Tourism – Visits to macabre commemorative or sacred sites like battlefields, concentration camps, cemeteries or the crime scenes of mass murderers.

This dissertation will focus on exploring the wider concept of Outbound Tourism for pleasure and lifestyle choices rather than for business, whilst seeking to address the contributory elements of this form of tourism in terms of some of the sub categories identified here and elaborated on elsewhere further into in this study.

In 2000 the total number of outbound trips made by citizens of the 25 EU member states was calculated at 875 million. It is predicted that by 2020 this will increase by 2.3% per year or up to 1,371 million journeys.(Hay, 2007)

Following changes in policy by the Chinese government in the 1990’s outbound tours organized by travel agencies reached 1.8million in 1999. The key destinations for residents of this country are Hong Kong, Macau, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia, Russia, Austrailia, New Zealand, republic of Korea and Japan. (Jiewen and Tisdell, 2001).

The most popular outbound destination for New Zealanders is Australia, with other destinations including the USA, Fijii and the UK. 29% of outbound traveling from New Zealand is a need for citizens to visit their friends and family living outside of the country that many have migrated there to. (Cooper and Hall, 2005).

Returning to the trends within the UK, the outbound tourism market has steadily escalated since 2000, largely as a result of the impact budget airiness have made and the increase in people researching new and interesting destinations online. The number of visits UK residents have made to foreign destinations has increased three-fold since the 1980’s with a total of 66.4 million visits made in 2005. 80% of UK visitors travel predominantly to Europe. Spain being the most popular destination. (www.statisticsonline.gov.uk)44% of all airline trips for UK travelers abroad are booked through budget airlines. (www.travelmole.com/stories).

This research document discusses in detail the various forms of Tourism in an attempt to answer the question why people need to travel to far away places.

The first part of the report outlines some background information on people movements, and the history of tourism. The second part provides a brief overview are discussed the basic travel requirements, which need to be met by tourists before they can travel. The third chapter provides the detailed approach to presenting the new elements featured under the umbrella of Outbound Tourism – a thorough investigation and an attempt to answer the question “why people travel to far away places”.

This is followed by the literature review for the dissertation and the Methodology. The Methodology will present the research findings from the qualitative research that was undertaken to support the arguments put forward within the context of this paper. As the questionnaires were submitted at a late stage and were somewhat unrepresentative for the purposes of any meaningful outcomes, they will be discussed separately rather than incorporated into the main body of the text.

LITERATURE REVIEW

HISTORY OF PEOPLE MOVEMENTS

People travel to wonder at the height of the mountains, at the huge waves of the seas, at the long course of the rivers, at the vast compass of the ocean, at the circular motion of the stars, and yet they pass by themselves without wondering.

St. Augustine

In his book The Art of Travel Alain de Botton considers a young writer Gustave Flaubert as a man traveling to Egypt to escape the  intense conventions of his restricted life in France. The writer tells us that Flaubert was in awe of the Egyptian way of life and ‘because of his belief that life was fundamentally chaotic and that aside from art, all attempts to create order implied a censorious and prudish denial of our condition.’

The German Naturalist and Explorer Alexander von Humboldt is also referred to with his journeys to South America and his ‘longing to be transported from a boring daily life to a marvellous world.’

We are informed that he was motivated to travel by his dreams to add to the scientific knowledge of the world. That he aimed to recreate the existing map of South America, whilst collecting new plants and species and determine the ways in which flora and fauna responded to climate change and soil type. (de Botton, 2002)

THE EARLY EXPLORERS
In order to place the notion of Outbound Tourism into context this chapter will provide an overview of the first experiences of travel. It will explain the economic and intellectual terms under which people were required to venture into new environments. Although most travelers today do not need to explore unchartererd waters or have the desire to acquire new varieties of vegetable or raw materials or even conquer and usurp new lands, there are still comparisons with the psychology behind visiting new places to seek new experiences and learn more about new cultures, together with the necessity to increase personal knowledge and consequently feel empowered.
One of the most remarkable inventions of the Neolithic age was the first sailing vessels and the invention of the wheel, which were both designed to move people around in different ways. Humans had to leave their place and travel far away for various reasons. For instance, Nomadic hunters and gatherers moved in search of food following seasonally available wild plants and game.

Then Ancient man started roads construction to facilitate the movement of troops through empires, and eventually civilians began to travel using caravans.

Travel for the purpose of commerce and trade took explorers to foreign lands to meet other people, and bring back riches of unprecedented value.

Wealthy Greeks and Romans equally began to travel for leisure to their summer homes and villas by the sea in places like Pompeii and Baiae.

The freedom of travel in the Roman Empire brought many Jews to flourishing cities of the ancient world, and Jesus himself is thought to have traveled a great deal with his disciples.

We know that Vikings had a particular skill for sailing and a keen interest in exploring. Through perilous voyages they conquered areas such as Iceland and Greenland, and were even the first to accidentally discover America in 985 A.D, when a ship was blown off course on the way to Greenland.

In 1001, Leif Eriksson sailed back to explore it further and called it Vinland, or ‘land of pastures’.

Dark Ages
The most notorious travelers in medieval times were mainly missionaries and pilgrims. Spurred by their religious convictions and beliefs, pilgrims made journeys at times dangerous to places like Santiago de Compostela, Jerusalem and Canterbury, while missionaries traveled to heathen areas to try to evangelize the people, such as the Celts in Ireland.

It became fashionable in the late 16th century for wealthy upper class men and young aristocrats to travel to important European cities as a crowning touch to their education in the arts and literature, designed to enlighten Europe’s young elite.

This was known as the Grand Tour. London, Florence, Venice, Rome and Paris were often visited by these high class tourists to expose themselves to the great masterpieces.

The French revolution marked the end of the Grand Tour as was known, travel and tourism was totally revolutionized with the coming of rail transit in the early 19th century.

Travel was no longer limited only to a certain class of people as it became easier, cheaper and safer to travel. Young ladies began to travel too, chaperoned by an old spinster as was appropriate, as part of their education.

STEAM AND STEEL
The Industrial Revolution has played a big part in developing leisure travel to Europe.

The new middle class who had more money were now able to travel as they sought to relax and take part in recreational activities.

For the first time ever, traveling was done for the sole pleasure of it.

In 1841 Thomas Cook put together the first package holiday in history. He started off with tours in Britain and soon moved onto other European cities with his rapid success, where Paris and the Alps in France were the most popular destinations.

He then pioneered all the common services that travel agencies undertake for the passenger today namely; travel tickets, accommodation, timetables, currency exchanges, attractions, travel guides and tours.

The Cooperative Travel association began in 1905 and Workers Travel association formed soon after in 1921. Sir Henry Lunn; catering to the upper class market pioneered this venture with a tour of the city of Rome. A packaged tour which particularly targeted religious ministers and their wives. However Thomas Cook is one of the original operators and remains one of the largest in Great Britain today. By 1882 Europe had become dominated by English travelers and up until the end of the 19c people preferred to travel together in groups to foreign destinations, unlike the trend today for more solitary, individual traveling that citizens of the United States and romantic couples particularly indulge in.(Morrell, 1998)

Post World War II saw the emergence of Air travel when a surplus of aeronautical technology and ex-military pilots who were more than ready to fly. Only the wealthy class could afford holidays with air fare, with for example an all-inclusive two-week holiday in Corsica costing less than fifty British pounds back in those days. Following the Second World War there was also a tendency to fear other countries, following the activities that had taken place across Europe. Great Britain adopted a sense of isolationism that was encouraged by the then Prime Minister Clement Attlee. This remained a strong feeling amongst the British right through until the second half of the twentieth century and created a reluctance for people to travel  outside of their own country.

THE MODERN AGE
Today the evolution and competition within the Tourism and travel industry particularly with regard to air travel and a growing number of low cost airlines like Easyjet, Ryanair, Flybe to name but a few soon contributed to international mass tourism, which is a consequence of modern day life.

Various developments in tourism have changed the way we have traveled over the years; these include things such as technology, safety and security, cost, social changes, etc.

The Grand Tourists of the 17th and 18th centuries echo today of the hoards of backpackers and gap-year students who, not content with traveling through one continent, do so throughout the entire world.

Much like the young European aristocrats of the time, we today also consider traveling as a rite of passage, an initiation, a transition, an opportunity for soul searching.

With tourism trends such as Eco-travel, Ethical Travel, Volunteering, Mystical tourism, Dark Tourism, Pop-Culture tourism, Medical tourism and Independent traveling, the travel industry has reached the very height of its popularity and diverse potential of choice.

So when we wonder why we travel, and where it all started, it might be comforting to think about our predecessors and how they moved first out of necessity; then for religion, migration, emigration, commerce, enlightenment and finally for the purpose of pleasure.

Today each of our personal motivations will vary, but one thing is certain, there will never be respite for a restless species who is dominated by the desire to stay on the move.

Source: A History of Why People Travel, Lucia Byttebier (2007), Web, http://www.bravenewtraveler.com/2007/09/17/a-history-of-why-people-travel/, retrieved on 8th January 2008

In the 15th and 16th century, traveling was predominantly for the rich and wealthy. They traveled to distant parts to see great works of art; to observe and explore great buildings, to learn foreign languages and to familiarize themselves with new cultures. In England for example, Grand tour was the trend in 17th and 18th century for the sons of the rich and wealthy where they were sent on education tours to experience the great traditional works of art and learn about new cultures. The trend for European Grand Tours has not dissipated with the top ten preferred tourist destinations in the world today including:

France receiving an average of 70,000,000 tourists annually
Spain with an average 50,000,000 tourist annually
United States – 47,000.000
Italy – 38,000,000
United Kingdom – 26,000,000
China  – 24,000,000
Mexico – 22,000,000
Poland – 22,000,000
Canada – 20,500,000
Austria with an average of 20,000,000 tourists annually.

Source: World Tourism Organization (WTO) web, www.wto.org.

In terms of the British People there is a sustainable trend of visitors who migrate from the UK to Europe on an annual basis. With 80% of UK travelers spending their holidays in Europe and in particular Spain. (www.statisticsonline.gov.uk)

This can be attributed to many factors including the basic desire for sun, cheap food and drink in addition to the new role that Europe plays in Cultural Tourism and the ongoing tradition for people to absorb iconic cultural attractions such as the Eiffel Tower, the Coliseum and the Acropolis Weekend ‘mini breaks’ are affordable, easy to access and offer a good alternative to a typical weekend’s attractions in Britain. The growth of the Heritage industry and the recent fascination for conserving the past and appreciating Britain’s role internationally are all things that are being considered more with the onset of globilisation and global communication. A sense of nostalgia about the past has grown from the increase in Museum and gallery education and family programmes and the British people are becoming more aware of cultural expression and interpretation. (Richards, 2001)

In its more base terms new destinations throughout Eastern Europe have also grown in popularity for the British people in recent years as they offer a cheap and different approach to spending a traditional ‘stag’ or ‘hen’ do in the once over-exposed English towns of Blackpool or Newquay. And more simply the desire for British people to travel abroad can be accredited to the fact that there is little necessity for them to speak any other language than that of English, which is spoken almost fluently throughout most countries in Europe.

However a recent article that appeared in the Independent newspaper launched a damning attack on the attitudes of the culture of Britain’s holidaying abroad in this capacity. Quoting Tony and Maureen Wheeler who are the founders of the well known travel guidebooks; Lonely Plane as saying,

“The sheer amount of frivolous travel is a problem,” said Tony Wheeler.

“Air travel is huge now, but where it’s bad is out of Britain because of all these short-haul flights,” said Maureen Wheeler. She cited in particular “people flying to Tallinn, to Prague for a weekend. They’re not interested in the history, the background. They want to know where’s the hip hotel? There’s no curiosity there. It’s just, ‘Let’s go somewhere new because we can.’ The environment can’t cope with that.”

(www.independent.co.uk/environment/green-living/british-abroad)

Another factor to take into consideration is the British obsession with traveling to France. It is even easier to cross the channel now with ferries leaving all of England’s major ports. Despite the historical and often humorous antagonistic relationship between the two countries, British visits to France outnumber French visits to Britain by about three to one.(Mayne, Johnson and Tombs, 2004). This is particularly ascribed to the growing number of second or ‘holiday home’ owners who in the last ten to twenty years have been lured to France by the new culture in television programmes documenting people’s experiences of living abroad and inspired by literary accounts such as A Year in Provence.

The British attitude to travel is changing and expanding at a rate that the rest of Europe are often finding difficult to keep up with. Undercutting residents abroad and infiltrating pockets of areas with the English culture, language and way of life are often viewed negatively by local people. But the fascination for the British people to migrate annually to Europe sometimes a couple of times a year both temporarily and semi-permanently is on the rise.

The significance of the investigations conducted throughout this work is the hope that it will add to existing research, and literature in addition to contributing to the generic knowledge of the tourism sector across the world. Furthermore, the significance of the research is geared towards demonstrating how tourism is changing and developing the historical form people are familiar and the emergence of new sectors like Sports Tourism, Bookstore Tourism and Literary Tourism

The research in this work investigated a total of sixteen forms of tourism within the context of studying trends in Outbound Tourism. It is important to note the rate at which relatively new forms of tourism are gaining popularity accounting for a bigger percentage of total tourist earnings in the world. A good example is Sport tourism which in the recent past was unrecognized as a comparative category for consideration within the tourism sector. This form of tourism is earning countries which are embracing it million of dollars in revenue, while traditional forms of tourism like wildlife tourism are loosing popularity at an equal rate. In essence, those countries which have in the past benefited from old forms of tourism will have to make major adjustments if they are to continue earning substantial tourism dollars. Other forms of tourism are acting as the turning point for some countries. A classic example is war tourism where countries which have been brought down by war are reversing the situation by embracing war tourism and earning millions of dollars in return. This income will be used to reconstruct and rebuild the aging and outdated infrastructures and institutions within these countries.

Whereas the previous chapter reviewed the methodology adopted to assist with the content flow and required outcomes for this dissertation this section will explore the literature used throughout this research. During the first part of the paper the personal diaries of Jemima Morrell, a Victorian female traveler alongside individual references to Thomas Cook and early travelers and settlers were used to provide a context for the historical background to Tourism. Statistics on current tourism trends with particular reference to the UK then help demonstrate the changes and growth in modern day mass tourism. These opinions are legitimized by way of examples including an article from the Independent newspaper crticising the increasingly popular onset of tourism for the sake of travel. The chronological approach to presenting the historical overview compared to the modern-day expansion of the industry helps to encourage the rationale behind why people want to travel to foreign countries and emphasises the fact that the drive to do so has always existed.

Chapter Two presents an overview of the practicalities associated with tourism by way of travel constraints including travel documentation, forms of transport and currency. Statistics were taken from the World Tourism Organisation and current exchange rates were analysed in order to support the areas under discussion.

Further on in the dissertation the various new forms of tourism are put forward for consideration. Due to the fact that little has yet to be documented in detail concerning the more modern concepts including Atlantic or Dark Tourism it was necessary to source and cite internet resources that perhaps provide more of an outline and definition to these contemporary areas.

The use of books has been fairly limited within this study and where they have been incorporated they have mostly originated from sources extracted from slightly more generic texts on Tourism such as Cooper and Hall’s A Tourism Handbook which provides an analysis of tourism in the area of the geographic Oceania regions detailing tourism demand and supply supported by statistics and exploring key issues within the industry itself. And with Becken and Hay’s Tourism and Climate Change which offers a comprehensive overview of the very latest data and intellectual discussion around the impact of Tourism on, and as a result of climate change.

This helps to maintain the perspective when researching an industry so susceptible to the continual flux and change influenced by a great many different forces.

Although a fairly comprehensive list of resources was utilized for the benefit of this study including articles, publication and web resources combined with the methodology adopted it is clear that there is scope to further develop the ideas of new influences and markets of tourism related to outbound tourism. Through the research process and knowledge related ideas that have emerged to date this remains a possibility in accordance with the findings of this work. If this research is to be sustained it would require a fresh approach that requires a well-thought out framework of innovative methodology utilizing well structured and varied research tools.

           METHODOLOGY

The method of this work is qualitative with research focused on academic accounts, other texts and media sources. Emphasis has been given to all sectors of tourism, and how those sectors are being affected by changes in Economic, Social and Cultural Systems.

It was apparent from the outcomes of this dissertation that a different approach was necessary in order to have delivered a more specific methodology. In hindsight and given time a more beneficial way of extracting useful information would have been through monitoring a number of specific outbound tourism models to maybe ten or fifteen different destinations. Preference indicators could have been measured alongside these destinations in order to determine social, cultural and psychological influences on the decisions that tourists make in terms of where they choose to visit as a foreign destination. This would gauge whether the cost of the holiday was a contributory factor in relation to people’s level of income. Then from conclusive statistics such as this another layer of empirical research can be undertaken to establish if in addition to specifics that confirm income is a contender, then what is the most popular destination for those people on a budget? Similarly in terms of age, culture etc. For instance do families with young children have a specific agenda to adhere to when traveling abroad with a list of given criteria? Or is there more emphasis on middle class families wanting to encourage their children in more of a learning experience, opposed to those from lower class backgrounds who may be encouraged to arrange a holiday that involves taking a restful break rather than an interactive event. It would have been advantageous to find a way of capturing data that has the ability to prove or disprove the stereotyping that is often associated with English tourists abroad.

However a survey questionnaire was used to gather data from a number of individuals that have experienced some kind of tourism activities in their life. These individuals included males and females with their age ranging from twenties to fifties. Copies of the completed forms for this survey can be found in appendix at the end of this report.

The analysis of the data collected was rather qualitative and has yielded basic, but nonetheless interesting significant information as part of the investigation. What can be clearly determined is the fact that the majority of most people asked would consider moving to a place if the weather there was nice and in particular hot. With places like Australia and Spain ranking as the most sought after locations.

From analyzing the data we can appreciate basic information that people are often influenced by their occupation when in comes to selecting a travel destination. For example, one candidate Jose-Manuel stated a preference for visiting or living in a place with some kind of military history, in order to satisfy his desire to increase his knowledge in this area.

This project identified a total of fifteen different contributory elements of Outbound Tourism listed below:

Major world destinations
Effects (positive and negative) of the following :
Accessible tourism
Adventure tourism
Agritourism
Archaeological tourism
Atomic tourism
Benefit tourism
Birth tourism
Cultural tourism
Dark tourism
Disaster tourism
Drug tourism
Extreme tourism
Garden tourism
Gay tourism
Literary tourism
Medical tourism
Militarism tourism
Music tourism
Pop culture tourism
Romance tourism
Sport tourism
War tourism
Water tourism
Wildlife tourism
Wine tourism
Tourism versus Economic migration
The aim of the arguments being presented was to outline and detail the different types of tourism emerging and the impact they have on visitors wanting to travel outside of their country in order to participate in certain activities.

The methods employed to increase an understanding of these new areas was to provide a contextual background by way of exploring the first concepts of outbound tourism and what drove these urges forward. Two and three hundred years ago it was about exploring new worlds, gaining power in the Atlantic, identifying and capturing new species and then traveling for the cultural experience in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, through to the boom in mass tourism that emerged in the late twentieth century. What is occurring in the twenty first century is a more thematic approach to the categories of tourism by way of personal taste, choice, lifestyle, experience and focused demand.

Chapter two focuses on some of the practicalities involved with travel and addresses the issues that might either deter or encourage travelers to visit certain countries. For example a short two hour trip from one European destination to the next is perhaps more feasible and easily managed than a trip from one side of the world to the other. Greater analysis could be taken forward with regard to the evidence to identify just how important these factors are when determining a visitor’s choice of tourism. The qualitative data that was carried out to support this dissertation could have included a more in depth approach to questioning people about the role of practical factors such as length of flight, cost of living, documentation and vaccinations and what impact they made on people’s decisions of what to visit when planning to travel abroad and whether tourism was as a result affected by these factors.

As it is the questionnaires are not representative enough of the type of market that needs further analysis. With only five respondents being measured. Although the age group is broad two of the respondents were students and three were Spanish in origin. Three of the participants listed the same tourism products that were included in question 15 as their chosen preferred type of tourism. Rather than leading the subjects into giving them a choice of tourism product, it would be more advantageous to let people think first of what they want in terms of activities when traveling abroad.

Interestingly four out of the five respondents believed that nice weather was one of the most important elements of a good holiday. Again some cross-referencing to determine the link with activity and location would be useful in the future.

Another issue that arose with this dissertation was the complications involved with attempting to cover such a broad area of Tourism.

In retrospect this type of Tourism is so complex and varied that it requires diluting for the purposes of a more focused study.

For example possibly one of the most important developments in recent years has been through the growth of Cultural Tourism and this may have been a better angle to have directed the dissertation from.

Competition for visitors between European destinations and European cities is rising at a rate. And European cities are facing an increasing demand for cultural tourism from Asian countries where record numbers of outbound travelers have been recorded in recent years. Asia is now the fastest growing outbound market with China excelling in these figures.

Tourism expanded at a phenomenal rate and whilst this is excellent in terms of the economy of countries and the growth in new jobs, increased international investments and developments it raises more serious problems that need to be addressed. The increases in people entering the cities and towns can create added congestion and with it environmental issues where the conservation and preservation of cultural sites is paramount. More psychologically it begins to de-sensitizes the visitor. If large crowds are all squashed into one space the quality and experience will begin to be limited.

The impact this then has on the increase in tourists wanting something more extreme, will once again begin to start changing the patterns of outbound tourism. It would be interesting to test the habits of visitors who travel extensively throughout Europe. Whether they are now choosing to travel to more exotic and adventurous destinations like the Adventure Tourism discussed previously, or for the more adrenalin fuelled Dark Tourism destinations that may sate the curious and demanding traveler seeking something different.

There is scope for a great deal further research into how the links between tourism and culture can be defined and rationaised in terms of contributing to studies that enable more of an understanding of the future patterns that are emerging and developing for future tourism.

PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

People travel to far away countries, states, region etc with different motivations and reasons. The reasons and motivations vary from one individual or group to the other. The incentive or reason ranges from having fun to looking for better health care. These in turn create different kinds of tourism, akin to those mentioned previously in the Introduction and include amongst others:

Adventure tourism
Agritourism
Atomic tourism
Bookstore tourism
Dark tourism
Disaster tourism
Drug tourism
Literary tourism
Medical tourism
Romance tourism
Sport tourism
War tourism
Water tourism
Wildlife tourism
Wine tourism

This chapter will focus on each of these areas in more detail as they are important in determining some of the rationale behind people’s desires to travel outside of their own country of residence, other than that of simply holidaying in a hot or different environment.

ADVENTURE TOURISM

This research has found that people wanting to travel to remote areas participate in a various kinds of activities. One of them is pure adventure as (XXX, 2004) explained #References# This kind of tourism is growing rapidly and becoming very popular as tourists look for unusual vacations, unlike what they have been used to. There are risks associated with such activities as people travel to hostile, remote and inaccessible areas.

Adventure tourism can be characterized by the following:

Physical activities
Cultural exchanges
Engagement with nature.
Some examples of Adventure tourism are:

Rafting
Rock climbing
Mountaineering
Trekking
Bungee jumping

RAFTING
Rafting is a leisure sport which utilizes a raft to plot a course on a river. This is done on different degrees of rough water or on white water in order to bring excitement to those riding on the raft. Rafting has been a popular recreational activity since 1970.

HISTORY OF RAFTING

Rafting has been used in the 17th century as a mean of transportation during hunting, shipping etc.

The Grand Canyon was routed after the recognition of rafting in 1960s; this had led to the establishment of whitewater rafting companies. The inclusion of Rafting in the 1970 Munich Olympic Games marked a major development in rafting.

Raft were originally made from logs, reeds and planks fastened together, the modern raft is an inflatable boat consisting of durable, multi-layered vinyl fabrics, having independent air compartments.

World major rafting destinations include, but not limited to:

Colorado river in the Grand Canyon
Montenegro
Brazil
RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH RAFTING

White water rafting is a dangerous form of adventure tourism. There have been injuries and fatalities in both private and commercial Rafting. Basic safety precautions have to be met. The risks involved in whitewater rafting come from both improper behavior and environmental danger. Undercut rocks and dangerous high falls are some of the environmental risks. Improper behaviors include attempting to stand on a rocky riverbed on a strong current which can result to foot entrapment. Travelers should avoid rafting when intoxicated and where possible make use of an experienced guide.

BENEFITS OF RAFTING

Many Alpine countries benefit directly from rafting as it contributes to the economy of those countries either directly or indirectly. Additionally, there is promotion of environmentism through white water rafting.

MOUNTAINEERING
Mountaineering involves the profession of walking, trekking, hiking and climbing up mountains. Mountaineering began with the attempt to reach the highest points of most unclimbed mountains in the world. Depending with the route used to get to the top of mountain, three aspects of mountaineering exist, namely:

Skiing.
Rock-craft
Snow craft.
History

The first recorded mountain ascent was 5,300 years ago when Orzi climbed more than 3000 meters in the Alps Mountains.

MOUNTAINEERING DESTINATION

Mountaineering is a popular recreational activity throughout the world. In Europe, the Alps offer the best location for this sport. Other popular mountains frequented by climbers are:

Europe:-The Pyrenees mountains, Caucasus and Tatra mountains.
North America:-Sierra Nevada and Rockies of California, Cascades of Washington, and Alaska high peaks.
Asia:-Himalaya, Tien Shan and Pamirs.
Japanese Alps
Southern Alps of New Zealand.

RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH MOUTAINEERING

Crevasses pose a great danger especially when traveling on a Glacier. Crevasses are big cracks in the ice which are hard to notice as at times a layer of ice cover them making them invisible.
Falling rocks: Rocky Mountains are very hazardous especially during the day when the sun warmth weakens the bond between the rocks and ice.
Falling ice: ice falls in the broken section of glacier and overhanging cornices. This falling ice should be avoided like falling stones.
Falling from rocks.
Poor visibility.
High altitude sickness.

BUNGEE JUMPING

This is a sport which refers to jumping from an elevated structure while tied to a big rubber rope. Heightened thrill come from the free falls as well as from the back bouncing.

HISTORY OF BUNGEE JUMPING

Bungee jumping has been used since 1950s as a test of courage. It involved young men jumping from tall wooden structure with their ankles tied to a Vine. It was not until 1979 when the first modernized bungee jumping was made in Bristol.

Risks associated with Bungee jumping.

Injuries or even death occur when safety precautions are not observed. Some of the possible personal injuries include but not limited to: Rope burn, dislocations, and back injury, cord entanglement etc.

These types of pursuits are not only adventurous but often provide visitors with a sense of spiritual enlightenment and can raise adrenalin levels considerably, resulting in a foreign experience that stimulates a number of different senses.

AGRITOURISM
Agritourism refers to vacations in rural areas where tourists travel to a working farm or any agricultural or horticultural operation. During their visits, they actively participate in the farming activities. Tourists learn about crops; ride horses, assist in picking fruits and vegetables, and honey tasting, shop in farm shops for gifts and hand-crafts, visit farm stands for local produce.

Other activities that tourist engage themselves in are:

Fee fishing
Harvest celebration festival
Haunted hay rides.
Hot air balloon rides
Agritourism can promote direct marketing through:

Tourists buying canned food off the farms like apple butter, honey, jelly, pineapple etc.
Tourists have a chance to buy organic and herbal products potpourri, wool, candles, hand-made sweaters.
The pick-your-own concept is embraced in Agritourism.
Tree Renting: Families or individuals can rent a tree, a row of coffee, a row of flowers etc.
Roadside stands: these gives farmer a chance to sell their produce directly from the farm to the customer.
Agritourism is developing at a fast pace and will soon have its fair share in tourism industry. It is widely practiced in Italy and Spain especially in wine growing farms. In Agritourism, the main interest is for people to travel and see how the food they consume is produced, meet the producers and discuss issues with them relating to food production. Many children who visit farms may never have had a chance of seeing a live cow or duck, or even had not had a chance to pick an orange off the tree.

BENEFITS OF AGRITOURISM

Increased profitability to farmers from agricultural based value added activities.

The public get a chance to be educated on the importance of agriculture and its impact on the economy of a country.

Increased demand for locally grown produce as tourists feel they are part of the production process.

Agritourism promotes the development of rural communities. Infrastructure and other tourism related facilities like Hotels, shops, lodges etc are enhanced.

DISADVANTAGES OF AGRITOURISM

With increased numbers of tourists visiting a particular rural area, the demand for that region also increases, leading to a substantial growth in terms of cost of living for the local communities.

ATOMIC TOURISM
This form of tourism is also known as nuclear tourism. The power of atomic energy has altered drastically the world. With this come fears and fascinations that enthrall the public to everything atomic. This has created nuclear tourism as people from all walks of life strive in their endeavors to satisfy their Atomic urge .Tourist travel to important sites associated with Atomic History. These sites include sites where atomic bombs were tested and where ground breaking research on atomic energy has been done. Recent years have seen the building of museum, dedicated to the history of Atomic energy and the frequency with which visitors are attending them is encouraging.

Some Examples of these museums and sites are:

Tinian Airfield, the launch site for Hiroshima Atomic bombing operation.
Los Alamos county museum in Manhattan.
Bradbury science museum.
Nagasaki which was the last site where atomic war bomb were used.
Titan Missile Museum, the only underground missile compound open to public.

Source: Atomic Heritage Foundation website, www.atomicheritage.org

Tourist travel has increased across the globe in order to gain access to some of these destinations including New Mexico Mesars, Washington states Columbian basin, Tennessee Mountains all in United States.

Trinity site, deep in the desert of New Mexico Attracts thousands of visitors despite the harsh desert weather, in the two days that’s its opened to the public every year. This was the site where the first atomic bomb was exploded.

Groups such as The Atomic Heritage Foundation are the brain-child behind the preservation of nuclear facilities and rallying the communities to work together to create nuclear tourism.

Set-backs-affecting the growths of Atomic tourism involve

Public restrictions by concerned authorities from visiting some sites as they are still government facilities.

The need for environmental clean-up aimed at cleaning environmental damages caused by the many year of nuclear research.

With the cold war just a few years behind and the experience still fresh in the minds of many people, the general public cannot fully appreciate the whole notion of nuclear tourism.

Most of these nuclear sites have not yet been considered historic sites due to the regulations stating that for any site or building to be included in the world register for historic sites, it has to be more than 50 years old.

BOOKSTORE TOURISM
Book store tourism started in 2003 as a means of providing support to local bookshop owners which were operated by locals. Many of these bookstores were located in remote areas and in direct competition with large bookstore and online shops. Bookstore tourism includes tours of the Author’s home, book signing and historical site tours. Bookstore tourism promotes reading and literacy and it also act as an economic tool by attracting bibliophiles in the local communities. Other section of the communities that benefits from bookstore tourism are: Restaurants, travel professional and bus companies.

Again this is a form of activity contributes to outbound tourism, in that many well-known historical and contemporary writers have their origins all over the World. In order to experience an aspect of their life and work it is necessary for people to travel from one country to another in order to do so.

V.6      DRUG TOURISM
Drug tourism involves traveling to another country, state or region with the sole intention of obtaining drugs that are not sold over the counter or are illegal to use in the country of residence of the person seeking them. It can also include traveling or crossing the border to buy or use narcotics that are illegal to use in one country, but legal in the next.

V.6.1   DRUG TOURISM DESTINATIONS

One of the world’s predominant destinations where people travel to obtain and use drugs and narcotics is Amsterdam. The Dutch Government is not strict on the use and posession of bhang.

Maastricht is another Dutch city attracting many drug tourists due to its close proximity to Belgium and Germany.

South America and south-east Asia are also favoured destinations for drug tourists.

Lack of uniform legislation for controlling drug use, sale and possession in different countries contributes to drug tourism.

RISKS ATTRIBUTED TO DRUG TOURISM

People engaging in drug tourism risk prosecution on drug smuggling charges or other charges related to drug crimes.

Many cases involving drug overdoses reportedly result in internal body damage and even death.

Diseases can also be transmitted, especially when tourists share the needles used to inject drugs.

V.7      DARK TOURISM
Dark travel involves traveling to places associated with suffering, grief and death. This macabre site of disaster may be man made or natural. Examples of man made disaster sites include Ground Zero in New York; Beaumaris prison which is open to the general public in Wales, Nazi concentration camps in Poland and the Holocaust museum and military cemetery.

Hurricane Katrina is an example of a natural disaster where tourist visitors flock to New Orleans and its Ruins where many people perished from the flooding waters.

Dark tourism may lead to heightened adrenaline levels at the prospect of the fear and terror experienced by others.

DISASTER TOURISM
This refers to traveling to an area where disasters have occurred to satisfy curiosity. After Hurricane Katrina in the New Orleans area, people traveled from as far as Europe and Asia to visit neighborhoods extensively damaged by flooding.

Visitors may volunteer in the recovery process and by donating food supplies and blood. Others may travel to help in the reconstruction of destroyed homes and cities.

Disaster tourism can have a negative impact from the acts of tourists interfering with the necessary recovery efforts.

LITERARY TOURISM
Similar to the Bookstore tourism this type of tourism deals with events and places from fictional books and focuses on the lives of authors. Tourists travel through the routes described by characters in a fictional novel. They may also travel to track the novelist and related settings in the novel.

This is often of considerable interest to literary tourists on the basis of how they study a particular creation of a place that has been influenced by the creative content of the text. Literary tourists are also a major boost to Bookstore tourism where they visit bookshops to browse for specific titles related to a particular site and author.

MEDICAL TOURISM
Traveling to another country or state, for medical treatment is termed ‘medical tourism’. Medical tourism has been practiced for thousands of years as people have traveled to far off lands seeking treatment from spiritual, emotional and physical healers and doctors. This kind of travel is incredibly beneficial to those seeking medical attention abroad. With rising costs for simple medical procedures, medical tourism has become very popular allover the world as people travel long distances looking for low cost medical care. Cost for cosmetic surgery, dental work and other medical treatment in the United States and Britain can be ten times the cost of the same procedure conducted in countries like India, Cuba, and Mexico. There are many companies worldwide that specialize in organizing medical tourism packages which combine medical procedures with a restful holiday at a low cost compared to the potential costs incurred in the person’s country of origin. Those who cannot get medical attention in a timely manner in their country may also opt to seek medical attention in countries where medical tourism thrives. This is because waiting times are much shorter. This way, patients get the attention they need in a timely manner and when it is most convenient for them.

BENEFITS OF MEDICAL TOURISM

Savings: Countries in which medical tourism thrives offer low prices on medical procedures compared to many developed countries. The cost of a plane ticket, lodging combined with the cost of treatment in most medical tourist destination can be significantly cheaper. Dental work offers a huge saving but other major and cosmetic surgeries also attract a significant discount. Often hospitals in foreign countries are in a position to give you the estimated cost of treatment in advance, this way you are able to avoid hidden costs common with surgery. It is important for those seeking treatment abroad to check if their health insurance cover is valid abroad so that they don’t have to pay the full cost of the operation
Shorter Waiting time: lack of wait and availability is a major benefit for those taking treatment abroad. In most cases the waiting time can take months, those seeking urgent treatment would prefer to travel abroad where the waiting time is significantly short usually within a few days or a week. This way the patient acquires the medical attention they require quickly and easily.
Personalized medical care: This is of benefit to people seeking medical treatment abroad in that  the patient is able to get better and more individual care at a foreign hospital than at home. Hospitals that specialize in medical tourism provide quality, outstanding service. Doctors involved in medical tourism are well trained in Europe and in the United States and many have been certified by reputable medical associations.
Medical tourism affords those seeking medical attention a chance for sightseeing before and after treatment. The patient can spend recovery time relaxing on a scenic beach or under an umbrella or a mountain resort. In some cases, medical tourism packages may include medical staff on call at the lodging. The huge saving can enable a person to take a friend or relative with them for their own comfort and peace of mind. Hospitals involved in medical tourism are either corporately or privately owned and due to their competitive nature often exceed care and comfort expectations. Patients benefit from luxury accommodation and private rooms that are more comfortable and nicer than they would expect to receive afford back at home
RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH MEDICAL TOURISM

Some countries involved in medical tourism lack the capacity to regulate professional certification and licensing of medical doctors. This can endanger the life of those seeking medical attention in such countries if an unqualified doctor is involved. It is always important for those seeking treatment abroad to find out in advance if doctors to be involved in the medical procedures are qualified and certified by the relevant medical association.
The legal system of some countries doesn’t make provision for compensation in case something goes wrong during and after the medical procedure for foreigners. Some insurance companies do not cover additional surgery and treatment incurred by the overseas operation.
Traveling immediately or within a few days after medical procedures can have far reaching effects on the patients. Blood clots, pulmonary complications brought about by flying at high attitude and sitting for a long time are common and very fatal to those who have undergone surgery. Medical tourists also risk infection and swelling. One should always take time to rest and recover in the countries where medical procedures have taken place.
Getting medical after care soon after an operation can be complicated. Post operation care is very limited in many hospitals abroad. One has to seek surgical care and ensure the healing is on course and that the patient is healthy enough to return home. Getting post operation care can be complicated and costly even on returning.
The fact that medical tourism combines both treatment and vacation can be risky. One might end up drinking too much or spending most of the time basking in the sun. This and lack of resting can lead to further medical complications.
MAJOR WORLD MEDICAL DESTINATIONS

Cuba

Cuba has been a major medical tourist destination for the past 40 years. Thousands of patients travel to Cuba from as far as Europe and Latin America.

Cuba has a good reputation of fine doctors, warm beaches and low prices.

Some of the treatment provided to patients in Cuba includes Cancer Treatment, cosmetic surgery, joint replacement and rehabilitation from addictions. Cost ranges between 60 to 80 percent less compared to United States and Britain.

Cuba has hospitals that put focus on foreigners and diplomat, with other that focus on residents who get free health care for life.

Cuba has double the number of physicians compared to the United States.

Germany

Germany is well known for its medical excellence. It has been a consistent medical tourist destination for people from North Africa and Middle East. In recent years, Russians and other Europeans have been traveling to Germany for treatment.

German doctors are known to be good in Spine Surgery and cancer treatment at much lower prices compared to the United States.

Mexico

In Mexico, dentist’s charge 50% less compared to dental charges in the United States. This has resulted in fierce competition in this medical field between Mexican Dentist and United states dentists in the Border States. Some United States dentists have opted to cross over to Mexico to take advantage of the low costs.

Source: World Health Organization: World Medical Journal, Edition 108

Thailand

Medical tourism is a fast rising segment of tourism in Thailand. More than one million people travel to Thailand annually for treatment to enjoy low cost medical procedures brought about low labor costs. Patients also enjoy higher individual nursing care compared to what one would get in western countries. Most of the patients that travel to Thailand for treatment come from Other Asian Nations like Japan, Nepal, etc.

Other popular medical tourist destinations are Brazil, Malaysia, India, Costa Rica, South Africa, Ukraine, Hong Kong, and Turkey

Source: World Health Organization: World Medical Journal, Edition 108.

ROMANCE TOURISM
Romance tourism also known as Sex tourism, can be put in to two categories:

Male sex tourism
Female sex tourism.
The most dominant form of romance tourism is Female sex tourism as women travel to other countries usually in groups for the sole purpose of having sex. Women carry cash and gifts to give to male prostitutes in exchange for sex.

The Caribbean is a major destination for Sex tourists with countries like Jamaica reaping the economical benefits as women travel from Europe to these countries.

Sex tourism has its fair share of set backs namely:

Transmission of STDs from the visitors to the locals and vise versa, especially when safe sex is not practiced.

Social decay through marriage breakdowns as parties leave their partners to engage in prostitution are common.

Cases of Child Prostitution have been reported in many parts of the world where sex tourism thrives especially when minors are engaged in having sex with tourists. In some cases, tourists have been prosecuted in foreign countries on child prostitution charges.

Sex is an important and increasingly growing tourism attraction for many developing countries. However it must meet the supply and demand. In terms of the analysis that has recently taken place in Japan the outbound Japanese sex tourism to Thailand has suffered a considerable set-back with the increased development of greater women’s rights across Japan. Thai policymakers have now had to respond to this shift and attempt to reverse their association as a destination for sex tourism. As social movements change Japanese consumer choices may continue to affect and impact on the economic changes that are now becoming apparent in Thailand (Leheny)

SPORT TOURISM
Sport tourists are involved in traveling to particular places to participate in sport as spectators. People may travel to cities where major games like Olympics are held to participate in those events or simply to sit and watch the games. The World Cup is one major event that brings people from a far land to participate in playing football or just watching.

Some of the sporting activities that sport tourists involve themselves in are: athletics, tennis, net ball, basket ball, golfing, swimming, hockey, walking, rugby, water sports etc.

The economies of some cities rely mostly on visiting rugby and cricket players and supporters, skiers, golfers etc. This area of global tourism is growing at a fast pace and in the coming years; it will have clinched more than 10% of the market share.

Sport tourist often engages in other forms of tourism due to its passionate nature, and the sporting experience. Sport tourism changes cultural discernment and acts as a tool to create new jobs in countries like South Africa and Middle East.

MAJOR WORLD Destinations FOR SPORTS TOURISM

Sport tourist is a shifting attraction depending on the season and the kind of sports involved. Some of the major sporting activities that bring a lot of sport tourists together are:

The Olympic Games held every four years in different select countries, some of the past beneficiaries are Korea, Greece, and United States etc.
FIFA world cup, held every four years, past beneficiaries include: Germany, Britain and Brazil.
Africa Nations Cup
Cricket world cup.

Besides the major seasonal sporting activities, the United Kingdom attracts over 2 million visitors to watch or participate in various sporting activities. Visitors to the UK come from United States, Germany, Irish Republic, France and Netherlands.

Sport tourism attracts all kinds of people but the younger generation tend to dominate this field.

BENEFITS OF SPORT TOURISM

Sport tourism is an important economic generator leading to the Creation of Businesses and Jobs. Canada for example is generating over 8 billion dollars annually from sport related tourism with 40 percent of sport tourist traveling from United States to Canada.
Source: world tourism Organization website, www.wto.org

Socially, sport and youth are developed through continued participation in sporting activities leading to healthy living.
WAR TOURISM
War tourism is a recreational travel involving traveling to war zones for sightseeing. It’s a dangerous form of tourism as tourists reflect upon their lives on the battle fields.

However, some countries make the best of their past Civil Wars. Former reformed guerrillas take visitors to their battle fields or hide-outs. Museums have been built to exhibit war memorabilia.

Examples of such museums are The Museum of the Revolution in Cambodia and Army museum in Hanoi, Vietnam where an array of Vietnamese and American military equipment are finely displayed.

In Vietnam, tanks are displayed in the battle fields and tunnels and caves preserved to attract tourists as a way of dealing with the painful past war memories. Excited tourists flock to the limestone caves which were used as the command center, field hospitals, sleeping quarters and as kitchens during the Vietnam War. Luxury resort and golf courses have been built on the battle fields to serve war tourists visiting the area.

Most tourists who travel to china for war tourism come from France and the United States. Hanoi, in Vietnam was the main French base operating in Asia. The fact that the main war was between Vietnam and United States the American people still travel all the way to see first hand the remains of war that involved more than 6 million Americans directly. Other tourists come from neighboring Russia, China, Japan and Taiwan.

Tunnels that were used by guerrillas during the Vietnam War have been taken over by tourists. Prisons, complete with souvenirs are a major attraction to tourists.

In the streets of Saigon, tourists have a chance to buy hand made gift war memorabilia like toy tanks and planes crafted from scarp metal, used bullets, shell dog tags and prized jewelry.

In African, Rwanda has become a war tourist destination as people travel from a far land to have a first hand experience of the after-month of the Genocide that took place in 1994.

In Poland, Royal Castle Museum attracts visitors from Europe and other regions of the world.

BENEFITS OF WAR TOURISM

The economical benefits associated with war tourism help in rebuilding the affected country.
The growth of service industries like Tour companies, hotels and resorts in post war regions contribute to the creation of jobs.
People have a chance to see and learn from the effects of war. The message taken back home is that of peace.
Artists help in cleaning up cities and battle fields by using used bullet shell and scrap metal to make war memorabilia and jewelry which tourists buy as gifts and take back to their countries.

MAJOR SET-BACK OF WAR TOURISM

Tourists risk their lives by running into active mine fields. These active mine fields continue to explode long after the war causing havoc, death and destruction.
War Tourism rekindles bad memories of the war especially where many people perished; examples include the Vietnam War which left over 3 million people dead. Old wounds are opened and the healing process might be a painful one especially to the survivors.

WATER TOURISM
Water tourism involves tourists traveling on water discovering the cultural and natural beauties of the place they are visiting. It’s an exciting and pleasant form of tourism and mostly involves moving from one luxurious port to the other.

The excitement of overcoming in foaming water, the quiet privacy in calm water, swimming in calm cold water, and the river banks camp make water tourism very romantic especially for a couple on vacation. Water tourism attracts all kinds of people and ages.

Some of the major destinations for water tourist are: Czech Republic, Slovak etc.

WILDLIFE TOURISM
Wildlife tourism is a form of tourism where tourists encounter non domesticated animals in their natural habitat or in zoological gardens. It involves a range of activities like bird watching, whale watching, general wildlife viewing visiting zoos and aquaria, hunting and recreational fishing.

Many tourists nowadays prefer to watch animals in their natural habitat than viewing them in zoological gardens.

In most countries, the governing authority has the mandate to control wildlife on state owned land but in some instances, private institutions and individuals have set up game parks for the benefit of their privately owned income generation.

Types of wildlife tourism:

Depending on the motivation of the tourist and the level of interaction between the tourist and the wildlife, wildlife tourism can be categorized into two groups:

Non consumptive wildlife tourism
Consumptive wildlife tourism.

NON-COMSUMPTIVE WILDLIFE TOURISM

This type of wildlife tourism refers to recreational activities that don’t involve killing or catching wild animals. Tourists are mainly engaged in activities like wildlife watching, video taping and photographing wild animals. Wildlife dependent tourists are expected to see and interact with wild animals during their visit to wild habitats while wildlife independent tourists just happen to interact with wild animals by accident as they engage in wildlife dependent leisure activities.

CONSUMPTIVE WILDLIFE TOURISM

This form of wildlife tourism involves recreational activities aimed at killing or catching wild animals for commercial or non commercial benefits. It involves recreational fishing, trophy hunting, recreational hunting for big game etc.

Consumptive wildlife tourists are engaged on active track- down through safari tour and game hunting on horses, water canoes or on foot during dawn or dusk. Those who are on commercial game hunting activities track animals during the night aboard vehicles fitted with spot lights.

Wildlife tourism can take places in the following protected areas.

National Park: large area for conservation of natural wildlife and landscape.
Nature reserve: this is an area of specific scientific interest mainly for biodiversity conservation.
Regional Park: this is an area set specifically for urbanites to provide cultural and recreational facilities.
Marine Park: this area consists of marine water and land for biodiversity conservation
Wilderness area: large remote areas located on the boundaries of national parks and reserves specifically set for biodiversity conservation.
V.15.3 SET BACKS TO WILDLIFE TOURISM

Disturbances caused by tourist have both long term and short term negative effects to the wildlife. These disturbances occurs when tourist deliberately harass animal causing them to change their feeding and bleeding habits. The animal might abandon its natural nest and use most of its energy running away rather than feeding. Long term effects include population depletion and distribution.
When tourists get close and intimate to and with animals by feeding them, the animals tend to get attached to the humans and start to depend on tourists for food. The animal might become overweight or malnourished.
Cases of human to animal disease transmission and verse versa have become common as tourists get into close contact with animals. Respiratory illness is a common disease epidemic which is transmitted to the animal from human beings and vise versa.
Cases of animals attacking tourists are common especially when tourist get close to animals that have young ones. Most animals are very protective to the young ones and any closeness by the tourists to their young might lead to attacks which can result in injuries and even death.
V.15.4 BENEFITS OF WILDLIFE TOURISM

Economic benefits of wildlife tourism helps in the creation of employment and a source of income to many countries. Trophy hunting admission fees, sales of hunting and fishing gear, admissions fees, land leases, park fees and service fees are some of the major sources of income for most countries where wildlife tourism takes place.
Tourists get to learn about conservation measures and when they take this back to their countries, those countries benefit greatly.
Revenue generated from wildlife tourism is ploughed back to the community living near the Game Park and reserve. This helps in continued conservation of the wildlife, helping to expand wildlife tourism to many countries.

V.15.5 MAJOR WORLD DESTINATIONS

African Jungles top the league of wildlife tours. The jungle in Countries like Kenya, Tanzania, and South Africa are full of untamed wilderness. Wildlife migration is also a major attraction to wildlife tourists. A classic example is the annual wild beast migration from the Serengeti National park in Tanzania to the Maasai Mara in Kenya. Uganda, In Africa is known for its huge number of Gorillas in the country’s forest.

In Asia, India is among the top countries that attract wildlife tourists. Major destinations in India are Ranthambore National Park, Bandhavgarh National park, Gir national park and Periyar wildlife sanctuary. Malaysia and Singapore jungles also attract a lot of tourists from all over the world. The Singapore, Bukit Timah Nature reserve and Sungei Bulor wetlands are the main centers of attraction for wildlife tourists. Malaysia with its Tropical rain forest has a variety of wild animals from the Taman Negara National park.

In Asia the jungles attract people for wildlife tours.

Wild life in Australia is famous for its crocodile tours. Litchfield National park and Kakadu National Park are some of the destinations in Australia frequented by tourists.

Other major attractions can be found in Europe and America.

Tourism industry is one of the major profitable branches in the economy. The number of attractions grows each year, making the region more attractive for all categories of tourists – for those who visit the region for the first time, and those who have already experienced the wonderful world  is able to show. The major features of the tourism sector are the implementation of the Quality Tourism Services (QTS) and the promotion of the community-wide hospitality culture, these two aspects should be described here in more details. The QTS is aiming at enhancing the standards of service among retailers working in the tourism sector and restaurants. ‘The Scheme was strengthened in 2006 to include visitor accommodation in the scheme, aiming to provide visitors with better quality assurance and a more comprehensive and effective complaint handling mechanism’. (Tourism Commission, 2007) The number of the outlets which have received the QTS certificates by the end of 2006 was about 6,000, which is the sign of the support and growing confidence of the visitors in the high quality of tourist service in the region.

The government makes everything possible to promote sustainable development of the tourism branch in the region, which is achieved through the support and promotion of the community-wide hospitality culture. This program includes the series of activities.Young Ambassador Scheme, service quality seminars and other related campaigns. (China National Tourism Administration, 2006) The Government has also financed the Service Quality Study which was finished in 2005 and was aimed to make the work within the tourism sector more efficient through directing efforts at agreeing activities among various departments and state bodies.

One of the most highlighted tourism events was opening of the Disneyland in 2005. This attraction has about ten thousand visitors a day. Other popular attractions include Victoria Peak, Ngong Ping 360, A Symphony of Lights.

The market of the tourism displays permanent growth and was easily recovered from the negative consequences of SARS in 2003. (Go et al, 2004) The growth of this market is actively supported by the government, which is proved by the fact that the amount of state expenditures in 2005 was equal to 6% of the state budget, compared to only 4% in 2004. (Tourism Commission, 2007) The Government sees high level of importance in the developing of tourism and its main aims in supporting the market of tourism and expanding its market share are the following:

–                          the development of the tourism infrastructure, which includes development of hotels and improvements in the already existing networks; development of the tourism related infrastructure (roads, restaurants, transport, etc). ‘The Governments of HKSAR and the Chinese mainland are working towards the construction of large-scale road and rail crossings, including the -Shenzhen Western Corridor (HK-SWC) and the Sheung Shui to Lok Ma Chau Spur Line; and also pursuing the advance work for the -Zhuhai-Macao Bridge and the Guangzhou-Shenzhen- Express Rail Link. The Sheung Shui to Lok Ma Chau Spur Line is also expected to open in the first half of 2007’ (Wen Wei Po Daily, 2004)

–                          improving the quality of the industry; it should be born in mind that positive development of tourism is the pushing factor for better employment of the local population. At present the share of tourism in the national GNP is 3.2% (after trade, logistics, financial services and other services), though this index is not very high, but tourism is one of the basic profitable areas of economy.

For example, the number of visitors to China in 2006 was stated to be at point of 26 million; in comparison, the number of visitors in 2005 was 23.4 million, which was 7.1% increase over 2004. Mainland remains the main source of tourists, but it should be noted that the share of Americans and Europeans in the tourist nationality structure is rapidly growing. The number of visitors from Mainland in the last year was 13.6 million (8.4% annual increase). The major tourist attractions opened in  in 2006 were Wetland Park, Ngong Ping 360; the year 2005 has become the witness of the  Disneyland’s opening as well as Phase II Symphony of Lights. The marketing campaign ‘2006 Discover  year’ is continued through the year 2007. (Tourism (Tourism Commission, 2007)

            The decrease in the number of visitors to China in 2003 was caused by major events in the world, among which were SARS epidemic and Iraqi conflicts. The visitor arrivals dropped by 58% during that period of time, but the table shows that the region was able to recover and to perform its tourist business towards its growth. The number of hotels in  is 126, with 47128 rooms (Census and Statistic Department, 2007).

                        The two major issues which should be resolved for the rapid development of tourism are the diversification of attractions (through the use of the regional national and historic resources which may be of interest for the visitors) and the continuous development of the infrastructure.

            In the nearest future the following actions will be undertaken:

            1. For the diversification of the attractions green tourism will be promoted in the Northeast New territories accounting the principles of nature preservation and sustainable development.

            2. Heritage tourism will be developed and strengthened, as  possesses rich heritage and culture; the best example of preservation is Marine Police Headquarters which has been preserved and transformed into the modern tourist facility to be completed in 2008;

            3. In order to keep the sustainable growth of the visitors’ number, the Tourism Commission decided to continue the Discover Year to the period of 2007. It is also planned that the QTS will create promotional strategies for accreditation of retail outlets and dining restaurants for the consolidation of the reputation as ‘shopping paradise’. (China National Tourism Administration, 2006)

            Though tourism rapidly develops, it is clear that the number of issues still need major attention. The principal benefit of the tourism industry in the region is its active support by Government and the related entities; however, the tourist market share is yet to be expanded with the growth of the national infrastructure and the diversification of the attractions accounting historical and cultural heritage of the region.

WINE TOURISM

The main purpose for wine tourism is for tourists to travel to the source of the vineyard and consume, taste or buy wine. It may also include visiting wineries, restaurants offering special wines or vineyards.

Major destinations for wine tourists include France, Italy, Australia, Argentina, Chile and South Africa. Growers and relevant authorities in these wine regions have spent quite considerable sums of money in the promotion of wine tourism and they are benefiting from it.

It has become fashionable in recent years to discuss the specifics of types of tourist activity including heritage tourism, ecotourism, adventure tourism etc. One more sub category should be included in these discussions and that is the new and emerging trend for cyber-tourism. Cyber tourism is a new type of tourism experience that involves the use of new technologies to achieve a tourism experience.

Prideaux and Singer define cyber-tourism as ‘an

electronically simulated travel experience that is a substitute for a physical tourism experience’. They suggest that this type of tourism will enable people of all ages and abilities to travel to places via

new technologies free from the restrictions of time,

distance and cost brought to our attention in the previous chapter.

Referring to points raised throughout this study there are a number of factors involved within the context of the modern world, its development and adaptability to the increased threats of global warming and depleting resources. Under this shadow the tourism industry is entering an uncertain time and if the uncertainty continues and people are forced to look for alternative means of leisure and tourism activity cyber-tourism may well indeed provide that alternative to physical and affordable travel. Although much research into certain cultures suggests that such a lonely and isolating experience may well not prove to be popular within a broad sphere of communities. (Prideaux, 2005)

TOURISM VERSUS ECONOMIC MIGRATION
An Economic migrant can be defined as someone who leaves his or her country of origin behind in order to try to improve their quality of life on a foreign soil. So is this still considered tourism?

Migrants still have to make a trip from one place to another as they seek for a better life using common means of transportation (cars, trains, ships, airplanes etc.) therefore it can be regarded as a tourism.

However, these movements are often done from Poor nations to rich ones who offer better employment opportunities together with very attractive salaries, generating other issues on both sides of the departing and the destination country.

One of the biggest issues is immigration, as every country wants to control immigration levels to ensure that those who come in can contribute positively to the economy and the country as a whole, rather than being a burden to the society. Immigration if not controlled appropriately could lead to an increase in unemployment rate, which ultimately could lead to a high rate on crime. Governments in these highly sought locations need to put in place laws that allow a certain level of control on incoming migrants.

Policies on immigration nowadays tend to favor what could be defined as selective immigration, whereby migrants are allowed in based on their skills (Teachers, Doctors, nurses etc.), this is causing a brain-drain on the countries where migrants are coming from and who generally would have invested a lot into their education and training.

Every economic migrant deprives his or her country of origin of their ability, and is prolonging their countries’ agony, which to some extend can be seen immoral and irresponsible. Government policies should be based on trying to help people raise their standard of living in their own countries without any need to migrate for economic purposes.

Research limitations

Implications of this research

CONCLUSION

The report has discussed how people started moving from one place to another, as well as looking into the reasons as to why they did so.

The dissertation explored a chronological history documenting the customs, necessity and personal choices that have formed the notion of tourism as we know it today in the twentieth century. There are a number of illustrated suggestions for acknowledging why tourism can be regarded as one of the oldest industries around.

An overview of the methodology and the literature review for this work will be presented later in this document.

The research document outlined the basic requirements for traveling, which included Time, money, transportation and document clearance.

Although this chapter within the dissertation has room for expansion in terms of cross-referencing the constraints of time, financial implications and status etc. alongside the impact of influencing people’s choices when deciding where to visit and what to do when they are there.

Some reasons why people would travel to far away places were discussed in the form of tourism categories. These include for example Medical tourism whereby people leave their countries to go abroad to get better and or often cheaper medical care.

The issue of economic migration was also discussed and contrasted with tourism, and it was recommended that policies should focus on helping people improve their lives in their own countries rather that migrate to rich countries.

The modern world is more open to travel than it has been the case at anytime in the past. Few borders are still closed to travelers which could cause some frustration amongst tourists but overall, the expansion for tourism seems boundless, with the tourist touring Space in the new sensation Space Tourism seen as the new revolution of Tourism.

With continued growth of the global economy, people all over the world have more disposable income to spend on leisure. Despite the rising fuel prices, terrorism, global warming, wars, tensions and unrest in some part of the world (Iraq, Afghanistan, Middle East etc.), people around the world are upbeat and continue to remain optimistic that with the technology continuing to evolve, and the western nations particularly the G8 working harder and harder to establish peace around the world, and develop great relations between nations, everything will be resolved allowing tourists to travel freely allover the world.

More detail could be included within this study to determine the reasons why people are so drawn to different types of outbound tourism, whether this is a result of the type of lifestyle they lead, whether there are economic factors involved or simply the rationale behind recent interests in macabre forms of tourism such as visiting battlefields and genocide memorials. Is there really anything new in a lot of these types of tourism. Or have they always existed. For example the Victorians were fascinated by the supernatural, the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in particular was a period across Europe where public hangings and capital punishment were feverishly observed and attended by the community and people in the dark ages were fascinated by witchcraft, magic and superstition. Similarly in the eighteenth century there was a huge popularity in traveling sometimes great distances to take the healing waters in Bath and Cheltenham. And people have always thought it fashionable to visit the eight wonders of the world including the Taj Mahal and the Egyptian Pyramids. Interestingly the market for most of these ventures, excluding the public tortures are all associated with the Middle Classes. Perhaps it is worth measuring the types of tourism alongside statistics related to class, gender, age and financial status. Chris Cooper and Christopher P. Cooper in their book Classic reviews in tourism discuss the new phenomena with women traveling to foreign countries on their own or in couples or groups of other women. Similarly in Susan Barton’s Working-class Organisations and Popular Tourism, 1840-1970 she talks about the impact of the so called working-class British people since the 1970’s in resorts such as Benidorm and Torremolinos which she cites as ‘rowdy and of low character-All fish and chips, British Bars, garish and loutish, they averred, or simply Blackpool on the Med.’

An interesting approach when considering the legacy of this type of research would be to categorise type of tourism in relation to circumstance. This would then help clarify the relationship between the two.

This investigation would not be complete without introducing all of the major concerns surrounding the sustainability of these new types of tourism and the excessive recent booms in mass tourism. with particular reference to the contributory factors involving climate change. With the recent publication of the Stern and Predict and Decide Reports in the UK. climate change is at the cutting edge of concerns relating to all markets.

The noticeable changing consumer behaviour should be measured against the sustainability and ethical awareness that is emerging in tourism as people in the UK in particular are making arrangements to travel more ethically to countries that adhere to fair trade. But the same visitors who are adhering to this will also be concerned with issues of global warming and the environment, coupled with the steady increase in airport taxes. Visitors now have to think very carefully about experiencing a remote and expensive destination in relation to this despite their ethics and values.

The one time notion of the traditional package tour is being replaced by an ever increasing demand for second home owners to seek a better climate and a more economical cost of living abroad. This not only effects the economies and communities in the more popular second home destinations as France and Spain, but is growing globally with properties being sought even further afield with the pursuit of an even more exotic and remote escape route for several months of the year, if not permanent.

(http://www.som.surrey.ac.uk/WTM/[email protected])

Long-distance markets are growing faster and shares are expected to increase to 13% in the year 2020. For example the distance traveled is now exceeding the actual number of trips out.

Outbound tourist mobility in 2000 was representative of about 7% of the world’s total mobility. With air travel making up the main share of this. It must be predicted that there will be a marked change in both the levels and types of tourism activity that will take place over the next few years. (Tourism and Climate Change)

Environmental issues may move the emphasis away from outbound tourism. A shift towards more domestic tourism and a return to more traditional forms of transport including large passenger cruise ships and inter-railing may dominate a new market of people remaining more local or at least traveling less distances.

This leads us to consider the rational behind other forms of outbound travel to exotic foreign destinations. Up until now it has been assumed that all modern travel is undertaken by aeroplane.

A significant number of tourists travel by cruise ship or ferry to their chosen destination. On average cruise ships carry around two hundred passengers at one time. Food is served in abundance and around the clock on board ship.

Opposed to a budget airline where you need to pay additionally for food and drink and in-flight entertainment involves reading your own book. A cruise ship provides entertainment day and night in the form of live bands, cabaret acts and children’s entertainers, sports facilities and a variety of activities for all ages. Travelers can also shop on board and in every port that it is destined to stop in. additionally there is no need to pack and unpack whilst you visit each and every destination as your luggage is safely aboard ship.

Celebrity cruises offer spas, in-cabin entertainment and five star cuisine
With destinations including Tahiti, French Polynesia, Antarctica, the Mediterranean, Europe, the Caribbean, The Americas, and the Greek Isles. It would be difficult to find a popular destination that was not accessible in the first instance by water.

RESEARCH IMPLICATIONS

FURTHER RESEARCH RECOMMENDATIONS

APPENDIX

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