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            The 1939 Worlds Fair, held in Queens, New York City, was a symbol for optimism in the future and the joys that technology might bring future generations. The time and circumstance of the fair, held over the Fair and all who attended, an ominous tone or brewing trouble that was about to come to a head in the coming and months and years as the entire world embarked on the bloodiest conflict in human history: World War II and its fifty five million deaths from the conflict. However, the 1939 Worlds Fair, for the most part, conveniently bypassed the troubles in Europe and the question of whether or not the United States, against the will of the vast majority of Americans, would be pulled into the conflict in the next two short years. For 1939 and 1940, the attention of the more than forty four million people who attended, was focused on the future when it seemed that the problems of the future could not solved through television and color home movies. “An optimism that had just been allowed to show itself after ten long years of depression was not being pushed aside by events in Europe.”[1] However, the 1939 Worlds Fair also provided a window into the future regarding the problems that these new inventions would be bringing to the world of the 20th century. The invention of jet propulsion and the possibilities of the new atomic age, which it turned out, was only six years in the future, showed the possibilities of wars in which there would be no winners, as there would be no people left to claim victory. This message was lost in the immediate, as the majority of spectators were mesmerized by such new inventions as television, Plexiglas, 3D films, photocopiers, a time capsule that was directed not to be opened for five thousand years, a Trylon seven hundred feet high and a Perisphere as big as our modern days stadiums.[2] The Fair was billed as “The World of Tomorrow.”[3] And in many ways, both good and bad, it was.

            By 1939, the worst of the Great Depression was over.  The Great Depression would not officially end until the end of World War II, six years later, but the levels of unemployment seen in ‘33 and ‘34, were a memory and the country, partly from the work projects of the New Deal, helped to put the country back to work. As is the case with such projects, the planning for the 1939 Worlds Fair was first started in 1935, with the offices of the planners, being located at the top of the Empire State Building.  The building had only been completed in 1931 but by 1935, still had not made a profit and much of its space had gone unclaimed since its completion. The New York World’s Fair Corporation was it was called, named Grover Whalen as its president in charge of operations.  Over the next four years, the committee planned, built and organized the Fair and the marvelous exhibits that they were going to bring to the masses. The Fair was billed as the greatest and largest international event since the end of World War I. The Fair was open for two seasons and despite the heavy billing across the country, their gate receipts were not what the organizers were hoping for in order for the fair to turn any amount of profit. As a result, after the first year, the committee replaced Grover Whalen as president as he had placed a greater stress on the educational exhibits and the desire to teach people what they ought to know instead of what they wanted to know. As a result, in the 1940 season, a greater emphasis was placed on the exhibits which commanded a greater interest in the audience. However, this could not stem the tide that the world was having on such exhibitions. Bigger issues were in the world.[4]

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            On opening day, there was no sign that the Fair was not going to turn a large profit for the committee and its investors. On April 20, 1939, more than 200,000 people attended the grand spectacle that was the 1939 Worlds Fair.[5] There was a great deal of pomp and ceremony connected to the opening as President Franklin Roosevelt delivered the very first televised speech as he officially opened the Worlds Fair. “President Roosevelt portrayed the optimism that he feels for the country and in the coming years.  It seems that America has finally been able to shake herself from the clutches of this Depression.”[6] The speech was broadcasted over the radio but this televised speech, covered by RCA, gave way to NBC television and the company has been one of the leaders in prime television to this very day. The speech reflected the wide range of exhibits and amazing technological exhibits that were on display at the fair. Some of the more fascinating exhibits were the time capsule, placed in seclusion and not to be opened for five thousands years, a walking and talking robot which could wash one’s car as well as what was called “Futurama.” It was these technological advances which commanded the most number of audience members. And it was easy to see why.

            “Futurerama” was an extremely large and detailed depiction of the world of tomorrow. The entire landscape of a city and then the entire country as drawn to scale as it showed the viewers, who were propelled through the mammoth exhibit by seats which rotated and moved the audience through the world of tomorrow. The scale of this promise for tomorrow cannot be ignored and in the year 1960 AD, the country promises to be a very different place.”[7] The exhibit had two very distinct and prophetic aspects: The first was that the Americans of tomorrow would not be living in the city but in suburbs.  The word suburb was not well known at that time and many people either lived in the big cities or in small towns. There was a great chasm between rural and urban life and each saw the other as being foreign to their own way of life. However, in the world of tomorrow, there would be a blending of the two worlds in what was called suburbs. The suburb would spring up after WWII, as multiple “Levittowns,” named after the inventor of these cookie cutters homes, built around the greater surrounding areas of a city and which offered much of the same advantages and opportunities for professional advancement that a city did, but at a lower cost and a smaller pace. And it was the automobile which was going to make this possible. The exhibits of the cars of tomorrow were also a strong draw to the audience as advances in automobiles have always fascinated Americans even to this day as auto shows in Chicago and New York still attract the leading news story in the major media markets. It was no different in 1939.

            This exhibit was more than 36,000 square feet. The exhibit transported “fair visitors over a huge diorama of a section of the United States that was designed with a  stunning array of miniature highways, towns, 50,000 individually designed homes and 5,000 miniature vehicles, waterways, and hundreds of trees of various species.”[8] The detail of the landscape was just amazing and at the center of the diorama was the automobile. The automobile would be the savior of American independence as the car would yield a greater level of freedom to its consumers that any other invention seen since in American history. This was the idea of Robert Moses, New York City’s most influential citizen. Large public works projects, designed completely under the authority of a single man: Robert Moses, shaped the city of New York and its established and distinct neighborhoods around the automobile and traffic: the moving of people in and out of the city as efficiently as possible. “Futurerama,” in an extremely detailed way, showed Americans, what life was going to be like in 1960’s America. The great cities of New York and Chicago would lose population but gain numbers in their surrounding areas as Americans moved into the suburbs in record numbers in order to escape a number of aspects of the city which made it unique but was now seen as an impediment to one’s daily life.

            The AT&T and IBM exhibit was also one that commanded a great deal of attention as it promised that its inventions would promise to bring a better tomorrow. The features included synthesized voices, an electric calculator and computers with their use of punch cards in order to store data and complete calculations with lightening speed, all wood the audience. However, the Fair also blended the old with the new.  In the “Masterpieces of Art,” there stood more than  three hundred priceless works of art: from Rembrandt to Michelangelo and Bellini. These were the exhibits that original president Whalen was pressing as the main attractions to the Fair. These priceless works or art, were some of the exhibits that drew in the crowds but still were no match for the inventions and the promises that it could bring, about the world of tomorrow.  As it was later realized by the committee, too great of a percentage of the exhibits in the 1939 season, were devoted to educational themes. In the 1940 season, with Whalen gone, the Fair would move into a direction that history recognized as the achievements of the Fair: technology on the cutting edge and promises of technology to come that would change the lives of Americans and then eventually, the citizens of the world, for the rest of human history.  This did not exactly come to fruition but as Historian Milt Rosenberg: “The Fair served as a much needed respite to the Great Depression. Despite the organizers of the fair eventually being forced to declare bankruptcy and not the entire Fair are technological predictions coming to fruition, the Fair served its purpose.”[9] In hindsight, the contemporary audience member, although unable to fully imagine what life was like in 1939 if they did not live it, or the Fair on one of the grandest scales that the world had ever known, could have foreseen that the Fair would be an economic failure. However, it was only for those that ignored the troubles in Europe and the international theme of the Fair, could someone have been oblivious to this probability. However, as shortsighted as this was, such ideologies were in tune with the unintentional motivation of the Fair: To prompt the visitors, mostly Americans, although there were visitors from all over the world, to forget what was happening in Europe and to stay in step with the isolationist views that at that time, were dominating American politics and American ideology. This seemed unlikely in 1940 as the Nazis were enjoying one victory after another and threat of American being dragged into the war, could not be escaped.[10]                                                            In the spirit of this goal, grand exhibits which neither citizens of New York City or a farmer from a small town in rural Iowa could have imagined all that the Fair could bring. One such example was the “Aquacade.” A similar feature is now at King’s Island in Ohio or in Disneyworld but at the time, was one of the first of its kind as it further showed that technology and machines, coupled with one wanting to know only what he wants to know, promised a better tomorrow. “The Aquacade was put on in a special amphitheatre seating over 10,000 people and included an orchestra to accompany the synchronized swim show.[11] Water falls pumped in 8,000 gallows of water a minute and was accompanied by the most well known swimmer of the time, Johnny Weissmuller, the actor also known as Tarzan. Also, a special subway was constructed in order to propel visitors quicker and with more elegance than ever before through the various exhibits and their grand scale. These exhibits would stay in tune with many of the displays of the Fair which many were years and sometimes decades ahead of its time and widespread usage by the American public. Many of the large scale exhibits that were seen in the World’s Fair, was also seen specifically, in Disneyland and later Disneyworld.  The same can be said for many of the inventions that were on display at the Fair that were mentioned earlier.

            The Time Capsule was also an exhibit, that despite not providing anything new to the audience and did not entertain the audience in the ways in which other displays strived to do, simply captured the imagination of the audience as common and ordinary household goods were put away, not to be opened for five thousand  years. Some of the items placed in the capsule were LIFE magazines, different types of grains and soy beans, children’s toys, a package of cigarettes and millions of pages of text on microfilm. The time capsule was touted as one of the most fascinating attractions. In one newspaper ad, it shows the Middleton Family as they come across a duplicate of the time capsule. The father cheerfully exclaims as he looks at the display: “Here is a cutaway duplicate of the Westinghouse time capsule with all of the things that it contains. It is buried 50 feet below and is not to be opened for 5000 years.”[12] Another man declares: “The people wh0 live 5000 years from now will certainly get a wonderful picture of our life and times if they find that!”[13] The time capsule was touted in the brochures of the Fair as well and it seemed that put up against the amazing inventions of the future, the time capsule would not have been as much of a draw as it was. However, its importance was heavily touted. “Fascinating to scientists and to everyday folks, this record of our times has been prepared for the eyes of civilizations 5000 years away….A warm welcome awaits you at this ‘fair within a fair!”[14] The fair was to bring many such amazing inventions which did propel over forty million people, from all over the world to come to New York City to see the world of tomorrow.  However, the fair did possesses, a more serious tone as nothing on that grand of a scale, during 1939, could escape the brewing trouble that was happening in Europe.

            America had chosen to ignore the build up of aggression that was occurring in Italy and Germany during the 1930’s. A Chicago Tribune poll in August of 1939, polled more than 80% of its large reader base, was against American involvement in foreign wars, the troubles in Europe being specifically cited.[15] The Isolationist movement was alike and strong during much of the 1930’s and up until December 6, 1941, the majority of Americans wanted little to do with Europe and their troubles. However, those who had chosen to ignore the troubles in Europe during their daily lives, still could manage to do the same while at the exhibit as the lighter exhibits commanded the most attention. For those who chose to recognize the world for what it was, the 1939 World’s Fair did portray a side of the troubles that were now taking place in early 1939. One example of this was despite the presence of over sixty countries within the fair, Germany was notably absent while much smaller and less influential countries, took pride in their exhibits and nationalistic pride that accompanied their efforts. In this spirit, Poland, France and Czechoslovakia, two countries that were partially oppressed by the build up of the Nazi regime during the 1930’s, took extra efforts to show their nationalist pride through their displays. However, in 1940, their participation was not present at all since the war had proved too much for them and the exertion of their efforts in anything that did not directly pertain to the war effort. Also, while in front of the British Pavilion, two New York Police officers were killed as a package that they were inspecting, exploded. Lastly, the Jewish Pavilion introduced the world to the concept of a free Jewish state. This was then as well as now, a controversial topic but within ten years, Israel would be recognized as the homeland of the Jewish people.

            However, there was a lighter side to the international feel of the Fair. Of the more than sixty foreign governments who contributed to the exhibits of the fair, many contributed to the wide diversity of the Fair.  All of the major countries in the world at that time, excluding Germany, made cultural contributions to the Fair. The Italian Pavilion combined modern styles with the classical art that Italy is still know for as they erected a 200 foot high water fall.[16] The display was one of the most attractive and awe inspiring art exhibits that visitors would claim was an aspect of the Fair. There was little hint that Italy, within just two short years, would be America’s enemy in World War II. This was in tune with some of the themes of the Fair. Germany’s absence was an accurate portrayal of the troubled concerning Germany and her absence was written up in the papers of its day. However, the unintentional purpose of the Fair was to give a respite to the troubles concerning the rest of the world. Italy’s exhibit did not display the Fascist domination brought on by Benito Mussolini or the increasing probability that they would enter the troubles in Europe, on the side of the Axis Powers. For the people that came to the fair, it would be the fascinating exhibits about the world of tomorrow that would keep them talking to their friends about their experiences. One such exhibit  was the “Theme Center” and at the center of this was the Fair’s most recognizable feature: a 700 foot Trylon and the Perisphere. The two were designed and built with the fascination of the visitor in mind.  These two mammoth buildings changed color the further one stepped into it.

The Fair also gave mixed signals about race and racial issues. With the existence of an exhibit that showed the possibilities for a Jewish Free State as well as Superman, played by Ray Middleton, being there to fight prejudice, the KKK and Nazis, it seemed as though racial tolerance would be a possible aspect of the world of tomorrow. Even though Americans were adopting a neutral stance on the build up of troubles in Europe at this time, there was scarcely anybody that were hoping for Nazi domination in any part of the world. When the German Max Schmeling fought Joe Louis for the heavyweight title in June of 1938, it was seen as one of the most important sporting events of the decade, and which turned out, one of the most sporting events of the century. The same can be said about the 1936 Olympics in Germany in 1936. Even in 1936, Americans were aware to some degree, albeit small, of the troubles occurring in Germany, brought on by the Nazi regime which took over power in 1933. Both of America’s weapons in those conflicts were Americans: black Americans named Jesse Owens and Joe Louis and despite being hated in their own country, was cheered in their efforts to show the Nazis that their ideology of racial superiority and eugenics was immoral and criminal. The irony of this was that in America, Jesse Owens was treated better in Germany than he was in America. This irony seemed to have been lost in America’s collective haltered for Hitler and all that Nazism stood for, yet doing some of the same things, but on a smaller scale, to the African-American. This was seen in the absence of exhibits in the Fair that represented African American culture within America or even in the rest of the world. There were not exhibits like in the 1958 Brussels Fair which portrayed a revived version of etymology which placed one race as being inferior over another by their facial features and other unimportant characteristics. It was rather the absence of African American exhibits all together that spoke to the racial ideas of the day. Their absence was not due to the apathy of the African American to show off their talents on the world stage but rather the fact that African Americans were excluded indirectly. African Americans numbered ten million in 1940 and with the Fair being hosted in New York City, it seemed only obvious to a contemporary society that African Americans be allowed to showcase their artistic talents in a way befitting their contributions to the wealth and prosperity of the country.  Except for the presence of singer Bill Robinson, made famous in the white community from his dancing duo with Shirley Temple in 1935, was one of the few African Americans present at the Fair in both 1939 and 1940.                                                                                                                                  Although the absence of African Americans were contrary to the initial promises made to the black community by President Whalen as early as 1937.“On January 24, 1937, Whalen attended the annual meeting of the New York Urban League with the “promise that Negroes would not be discriminated against in any way by the management. Whenever we, who are running the fair, find that there are outstanding contributions made by your race, I assure you that they will be recognized”.[17] It was unfortunate that these promises never did come to fruition. There was one exception concerning African American influence behind the scenes of the Fair’s exhibits.  “Within the nine months between December 1937 and August 1938, expectations ran high in the hopes that Whalen’s assurances of non-discrimination and racial recognition would be carried through. Whalen announced that the fair’s board of design had selected Augusta Savage to sculpt a group to be placed in the court of the Community Arts Building. Whalen concluded his comments with, “It seemed important to recognize the really worthwhile and distinctive gifts to our American culture of the different races that have constituted our population. However, the positions of planning or any other high profiled or demanding position, was not given to African Americans as they were passed over for these jobs, one by one and through empty promises. Eventually, it was recognized, even before the start of the Fair, that this would become a reality and that Whalen was not giving these promises with any authority or had never intended to fulfill these promises in the first place.”[18] “Louise Johnson, presiding at the Harlem Community Cultural Conference on May 6, painted the bleakest picture of the entire on-going labor crisis. She stated, “The Fair portrays the social and economic accomplishments of man up to the present and attempts to look into the future as well. In view of the blind attitude on the part of the World’s Fair, the future seems to hold the gloomiest prospects. The Negro is only given a menial part in the great Fair which is supposed to typify the truly democratic world of tomorrow.”[19] There were concessions made for the African American but which fell far short of the expectations and promises made by President Whalen as well as other officials of the Fair. “The fair also planned to recognize African Americans in ‘Negro Week.’ This brought a very divided response from the African-American community. However, as other ethnic groups soon discovered, the national exposure drew the distant communities together in a very troubled time. The musical program highlighted numerous African-American composers and entertainers, a field of influence that has been accepted by a wide number of the American public and which was not perceived to be a threat to the white establishment. The opening concert featured the noted composer and arranger J. Rosamund Johnson and singer Juanita Hall.”[20] It was a shallow victory as African Americans were already accepted to a large degree with the presence of their music. This was true at least in comparison to their other endeavors and accomplishments that had been ignored by White America. Exhibits of science, engineering or emerging technology or any other contributions were ignored. “For many Americans, the New York World’s Fair displayed an exciting future of streamlined buildings, transcontinental highways, and endless commercial products which were meant for a more comfortable lifestyle. However, for most African Americans, the fair provided limited prospects of success. Once again relegating blacks to nominal job opportunities and providing no major exhibition space for African-American accomplishments, the fair seemed to present a future much like the present and unbelievably not much different from the past. Still, the emergence of major African-American entertainers as a means of establishing economic, cultural, and patriotic stability gave hope to thousands of young, prospective artists.”[21]  This would continue to be seen in another major international stage: World War II. As a million African Americans went to fight for the freedom and liberation of others, they were not given the same consideration, either at home or abroad while in the service of their country.

 On a lighter side, which seemed to be the prevailing theme of the fair in the 1940 season, the Worlds Fair led to a number of important and entertaining events. For one, Disneyland was created from the inspiration that Walt Disney took away with him upon visiting the different exhibits of the Fair. “The design of Disneyland, with its themed Frontierland, TomorrowLand and sleeping beauty castles, owes something to the 1939 Worlds Fair. The resemblance of the Walt Disney World’s EPCOT center to the fair is even closer and was widely noted by architectural writers when it opened “Spaceship Earth,” which bears a distinct family resemblance to the Perisphere. Just as the 1893 Chicago Worlds Fair inspired the formation of Coney Island in New York, so too did the Worlds Fair inspire Disneyland. Also, the worlds fair helped give way to heavier issues as well. The production of the atomic bomb, already in progress, was sped up as the masses became aware to a small degree, but still more than ever before in the history of man, the potential of atomic energy. Not only in the usage of an atomic bomb but also in jet propulsion which incidentally, was passed on by the British Air Force as they did not see the potential for this invention despite Germany’s superior Air Force.

The 1939 Worlds Fair was one that served as not only entertaining but also important in the culture of America. The Fair introduced a wide array of new and important inventions to the mind of the American consumer. The television to their day is what the printing press was to the middle ages or the Internet to our modern society in terms of its importance. By 1950, four million Americans would have televisions and by 1960, over forty million Americans would have televisions, with that number growing exponentially in the decades following the Fair. The various inventions both captured the imaginations as well as the fear of visitors to the Fair. Color home videos and 3D as well as television gave an optimistic feeling those who came to witness the possibilities of the future.  However, the future brought with it, a greater sense of fear and a shrinking of the world as troubles on the other side of the globe and the new inventions that propelled the troubles could very easily drag American down with it.  The potential of the atomic age, before it actually was unleashed on August 6, 1945, was seen at the New York Worlds Fair.[22] And even though no one could grasp the severity of this new invention, it was the presentation of its possibilities that helped convince President Roosevelt, along with the insisting of important men of science like Einstein and Oppenheimer, that America must be the first to win the arms race in the event a world war comes to the shore of America. Also, for the countries that has been pulled into the conflict; Britain, Poland and France to name a few, the optimistic promises of the Fair about the future were hollow ones at best as they were now faced with more heavier problems. It was the start of WWII that helped lead to the financial failure of the fair.  The company which planned the Fair, was forced to file for bankruptcy as they lost millions of dollars in the venture. Also, the steel used to make the Trylon and Perisphere were melted down to make millions of bullets and the steel used to make tanks for the war in Europe. In the next few years, the promises that the world of tomorrow was one in which old problems and inconveniences would cease to exist through the implementation of new and wonderful inventions, fell on deaf ears and millions of dead bodies.

            “While trying to make the 1939 version of the fair profitable, the directors faced a more pressing problem in September. Hitler’s invasion of Poland cast doubt on the eventuality of the planned second year. Following extensive negotiations with all major exhibitors, the fair did reopen in 1940 but in a dramatically different version. ‘The World of Tomorrow’ theme was replaced with “For Peace and Freedom.”[23] This would serve as the downfall for the fiscal success of the Fair. While many foreign nations cut back on their pavilion’s exhibits or adjusted them to the reality of war, Russia withdrew totally, and its massive structure disappeared over the winter. While the United States, in the midst of a presidential election, remained neutral and isolationist, the fair’s promoters reacted to the upsurge in patriotism by presenting weeklong tributes to America’s Melting Pot.”[24] As the world plunged deep into the troubles of World War II, the changes were seen immediately within the Fair. From 1939 to 1940, the two years that the fair was in operation, a great deal of progress in the war took place. Nobody could now ignore that there was a war and the isolationist efforts, coupled with the optimism of the Fair, was not enough to turn a profit with the Fair or to alleviate the concerns of a worried American public as to whether or not they would be dragged into another European war. Attendance dropped off steadily in the 1940 season, despite a greater presence of visitor’s favorites. However, the Fair led to other important aspects and progress.  The World of Tomorrow really was the world of tomorrow to a certain degree. The fact that technology rules our daily lives to a greater degree than ever before, there can be no doubt. And with every new invention, regardless of its necessity, is greeted by an excited public as what does the job faster and with more style, will always create demand in the consumer and patronize its inventors with billions of their hard earned money and hours of their time. The Fair led to a greater recognition of the atomic age, although they could not imagine the problems that such an invention could bring to the security of the world. Television is one of the most important inventions in the history of the world and with the introduction of jet propulsion, although not seen with its full potential, is what is used today in every commercial airplane today. The Fair, although ignoring the heavier problems in the world at that time and despite losing 65% of the money from its investors, did serve an important purpose. “Futurerama,” to a fascinating and detailed degree, showed the world of tomorrow as was never seen before. It was an important time for those interested in the future, the possibilities that new inventions could bring to mankind, as well as how these inventions and population trends were going to affect future generations. All is important, necessary and a great source of entertainment and the imagination.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Burns, Ric.  The History of New York: City of Tomorrow.  Boston: PBS Video. 1999.

Cope, David. The History of Jim Crow. African Americans in ‘The World of Tomorrow’: 1939 www.jimcrowhistory.org  Downloaded March 30, 2007

http://xroads.virginia.edu/ “The World of Tomorrow.” Downloaded March 24, 2007

Johnson, Mary. 1939 World’s Fair: The World of Tomorrow.”  Chicago” University of Chicago Press. 1987

Meyers, Mark. Grand Opening of World’s Fair Expected to Attract Millions. Liberty Magazine. April 13, 1939.

Schaden, Chuck. The 1939 World’s Fair.  Schiller Park, IL Nostalgia Digest. April 1999. pg. 12

“In the Wake of the News: Americans Push for Isolation” Chicago Tribune June 10, 1938.  A3

Grant Opening of the World’s Fair.  LIFE Magazine.  April 15, 1939.  p. 12-22.

World War Looms Over World’s Fair. LIFE Magazine.  June 23, 1940 p. 14-18

Diorama Exhibit Promises New World of Tomorrow. LIFE Magazine July 21, 1939 p. 23-26

“Worlds Fair, 1939” World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago: World Book Press. 1953

Zim, Larry.  The World of Tomorrow.  New York: Harper Collins. 1988

[1] Schaden, Chuck. The 1939 World’s Fair.  Schiller Park, IL Nostalgia Digest. April 1999. pg. 12

[2] Burns, Ric.  The History of New York: City of Tomorrow.  Boston: PBS Video. 1999.

[3] http://xroads.virginia.edu/ “The World of Tomorrow.” Downloaded March 20, 2007

[4] “Worlds Fair, 1939” World Book Encyclopedia. Chicago: World Book Press. 1953 pg. 7789-7790.

[5] Burns, Ric.  The History of New York: City of Tomorrow.  Boston: PBS Video. 1999.

[6] Meyers, Mark. Grand Opening of World’s Fair Expected to Attract Millions. Liberty Magazine. April 13, 1939.

[7] Diorama Exhibit Promises New World of Tomorrow. LIFE Magazine July 21, 1939 p. 23-26

[8] Burns

[9] Johnson, Mary. 1939 World’s Fair: The World of Tomorrow.” Chicago” University of Chicago Press. 1987

[10] World War Looms Over World’s Fair. LIFE Magazine.  June 23, 1940 p. 14-18

[11] Grant Opening of the World’s Fair.  LIFE Magazine.  April 15, 1939  p. 12-22.

[12] Ibid.
[13] Ibid.

[14] Burns, Ric.  History of New York: The World of Tomorrow.  Boston: PBS Video 1999
[15] “In the Wake of the News: Americans Push for Isolation” Chicago Tribune June 10, 1938.  A9

[16] Johnson, Mary. 1939 World’s Fair: The World of Tomorrow.” Chicago” University of Chicago Press. 1987

[17] Cope, David. The History of Jim Crow. African Americans in ‘The World of Tomorrow’: 1939 www.jimcrowhistory.org  March 30, 2007

[18] Cope, David. The History of Jim Crow. African Americans in ‘The World of Tomorrow’: 1939 www.jimcrowhistory.org  March 30, 2007

[19] Ibid.
[20] Ibid.

[21] Cope, David. The History of Jim Crow. African Americans in ‘The World of Tomorrow’: 1939 www.jimcrowhistory.org  March 30, 2007

[22] Johnson, Mary. 1939 World’s Fair: The World of Tomorrow.” Chicago” University of Chicago Press. 1987 p.87

[23] Cope, David. The History of Jim Crow. African Americans in ‘The World of Tomorrow’: 1939 www.jimcrowhistory.org  March 30, 2007

[24] Cope, David. The History of Jim Crow. African Americans in ‘The World of Tomorrow’: 1939 www.jimcrowhistory.org  March 30, 2007

 

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